The Role of Inversion in the Genesis, Development and the Structure of Scientific Knowledge

G., Nagarjuna (1994) The Role of Inversion in the Genesis, Development and the Structure of Scientific Knowledge. [Thesis]

Full text available as:



The main thrust of the argument of this thesis is to show the possibility of articulating a method of construction or of synthesis--as against the most common method of analysis or division--which has always been (so we shall argue) a necessary component of scientific theorization. This method will be shown to be based on a fundamental synthetic logical relation of thought, that we shall call inversion--to be understood as a species of logical opposition, and as one of the basic monadic logical operators. Thus the major objective of this thesis is to This thesis can be viewed as a response to Larry Laudan's challenge, which is based on the claim that ``the case has yet to be made that the rules governing the techniques whereby theories are invented (if any such rules there be) are the sorts of things that philosophers should claim any interest in or competence at.'' The challenge itself would be to show that the logic of discovery (if at all formulatable) performs the epistemological role of the justification of scientific theories. We propose to meet this challenge head on: a) by suggesting precisely how such a logic would be formulated; b) by demonstrating its epistemological relevance (in the context of justification) and c) by showing that a) and b) can be carried out without sacrificing the fallibilist view of scientific knowledge. OBJECTIVES: We have set three successive objectives: one general, one specific, and one sub-specific, each one related to the other in that very order. (A) The general objective is to indicate the clear possibility of renovating the traditional analytico-synthetic epistemology. By realizing this objective, we attempt to widen the scope of scientific reason or rationality, which for some time now has perniciously been dominated by pure analytic reason alone. In order to achieve this end we need to show specifically that there exists the possibility of articulating a synthetic (constructive) logic/reason, which has been considered by most mainstream thinkers either as not articulatable, or simply non-existent. (B) The second (specific) task is to respond to the challenge of Larry Laudan by demonstrating the possibility of an epistemologically significant generativism. In this context we will argue that this generativism, which is our suggested alternative, and the simplified structuralist and semantic view of scientific theories, mutually reinforce each other to form a single coherent foundation for the renovated analytico-synthetic methodological framework. (C) The third (sub-specific) objective, accordingly, is to show the possibility of articulating a synthetic logic that could guide us in understanding the process of theorization. This is realized by proposing the foundations for developing a logic of inversion, which represents the pattern of synthetic reason in the process of constructing scientific definitions.

Item Type:Thesis
Keywords:logic of discovery, logic of construction, Popper, Larry Laudan, generativism, falsificationism, consequentialism, inversion, nature of scientific knowledge, induction, justification of induction, meaning preserving logic, ampliative logic, models, semantic view of scientific theories, non-statement view, Stegmuller, Kuhn, van Fraassen, Galileo, inversion and mathematics, development of science, growth of science
Subjects:Philosophy > Logic
Philosophy > Philosophy of Science
Philosophy > Epistemology
ID Code:4340
Deposited By: G., Nagarjuna
Deposited On:02 May 2005
Last Modified:11 Mar 2011 08:56

References in Article

Select the SEEK icon to attempt to find the referenced article. If it does not appear to be in cogprints you will be forwarded to the paracite service. Poorly formated references will probably not work.


1 Peter Achinstein. 1968, Concepts of Science. The

John Hopkins Press, Maryland.

2 Prajit K. Basu. 1992, Similarities and

dissimilarities between joseph priestley's and

antoine lavoisier's chemical beliefs. Studies in

History and Philosophy of Science, 23:445-469.

3 Henry Beilin. 1971, The development of physical

concepts. In Theodore Mischel, editor, Cognitive

Development and Epistemology. Academic Press, New


4 E.T. Bell. 1945, Development of Mathematics.

McGraw-Hill, New York, second edition.

5 E.T. Bell. 1961, Men of Mathematics. Simon and

Schuster, New York.

6 Nuel Jr. Belnap. 1963, An Analysis of Questions:

Preliminary Report. Santa Monika, California.

7 E. Beth. 1961, Semantics of physical theories. In

H. Freudenthal, editor, The Concept of the Role of

Model in Mathematics and Natural and Social

Sciences, pages 48-51. D. Reidel Publishing

Company, Dordrecht.

8 Max Black, editor. 1954, Problems of Analysis.

Cornell University Press, New York.

9 Richard Blackwell. 1969, Discovery in the Physical

Sciences. University of Notre Dame Press, Notre


10 Mary Boas. 1959, Robert Boyle and

Seventeenth-century Chemistry. Cambridge

University Press, Cambridge.

11 Salomon Bochner. 1966, The Role of Mathematics in

the Rise of Science. Princeton University Press,


12 Robert Boyle. 1661, The Skeptical Chymist.

E.P.Dutton & Co. Inc., New York. Reprinted by

Dutton in 1949.

13 Mario Bunge. 1967, Scientific Research I: The

Search for System. Springer-Verlag, New York.

14 Arthur Burks. 1946, Peirce's theory of abduction.

Philosophy of Science, XIII:301-306.

15 M.F. Burnyeat. 1977, Examples in epistemology:

Socrates, theaetetus and g.e. moore. Philosophy,


16 H. Butterfield. 1962, The Origins of Modern

Science: 1300-1800. G. Bell and Sons Ltd., London.

17 Robert E. Butts (ed.). 1978, New Perspectives on

Galileo, volume 14 of University of Western Ontario

Series in Philosophy of Science. Reidel


18 Rudolf Carnap. 1966, Philosophical Foundations of

Physics. Basic Books, New York.

19 James D. Carney and Richard K. Scheer. 1980,

Fundamentals of Logic. Macmillan Publishing

Co. Inc., New York, second edition.

20 Ernst Cassirer. 1923, Substance and Function and

Einstein's Theory of Relativity. Open Court,


21 Peter Caws. 1965, The Philosophy of Science: A

Systematic Account. D. van Nostrand Company Inc.

22 A.F. Chalmers. 1976, What is this thing called

Science?: An Assessment of the Nature and status of

science and its methods. The Open University

Press, Milton Keynes.

23 Marshall Clagett, editor. 1959, Critical Problems

in the History of Science. The University of

Wisconsin Press, Madison.

24 J. Alberto Coffa. 1991, The Semantic Tradition from

Kant to Carnap. Cambridge University Press,


25 Morris R. Cohen and Ernst Nagel. 1968, An

Introduction to Logic and Scientific Method.

Allied Publishers, N. Delhi.

26 M.R. Cohen and I.E. Drabkin, editors. 1958, A

Source Book in Greek Science. Harward University

Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

27 J.B. Conant. 1960, Overthrow of the Phlogiston

Theory: The Chemical Revolution of 1775-1789.

Harward University Press, Cambridge.

28 J.R. Conant. 1951, Science and Common Sense. Yale

University Press, New Haven, Connecticut.

29 F. M. Cornford. 1935, Plato's Theory of Knowledge:

The Theaetetus and the Sophist of Plato. Routledge

and Kegan Paul, London. Translated with a running


30 Courant and Robins. 1960, What is Mathematics?

Oxford University Press, London.

31 Donald Davidson. 1974, On the very idea of

conceptual scheme. Proceedings and Addresses of

the American Philosophical Association, (67):5-20.

32 Richard Dedekind. 1901, Essays on the Theory of

Numbers. Dover Publications, New York. Translated

by W.W. Berman 1963.

33 E.J. Dijksterhuis. 1959. In Marshall Clagett,

editor, Critical Problems in the History of

Science. The University of Wisconsin Press,


34 E.J. Dijksterhuis. 1961, The Mechanization of the

World Picture. Oxford University Press, London.

35 Theodosius Dobzhansky. 1955, Evolution, Genetics

and Man. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.

36 Stillman Drake. 1957, Discoveries and Opinions of

Galileo. Doubleday and Company Inc., New York.

Translated with Introduction.

37 Rene Dugas. 1955, A History of Mechanics. Editions

Du Griffon, Neuchatel-Switzerland. Translated by

Maddox, J.R.

38 Pierre Duhem. 1954, Aim and Structure of Phisical

Theory. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

39 C.H. Jr. Edwards. 1979, The Historical Development

of the Calculus. Springer-Verlag, New York.

40 David Elkind. 1969, Conservation and concept

formation. In David Elkind and John H. Flavell,

editors, Studies in Cognitive Development: Essays

in Honour of Jean Piaget. Oxford University Press,

New York.

41 Gareth Evans and John McDowell, editors. 1976,

Truth and Meaning: Essays in Semantics. Clarendon

Press, Oxford.

42 K.T. Fann. 1970, Peirce's Theory of Abduction.

Martinus Nijhoff, Hague.

43 Paul Feyeraband. 1977, Changing patterns of

reconstruction. British Journal for the Philosophy

of Science, 28:351-382.

44 Paul Feyeraband. 1978, Against Method: An Out line

of an Anarchistic Theory of Knowledge. Verso

Edition, London.

45 Feyerabend. 1981, Problems of Empiricism:

Philosophical Papers. Oxford University Press,


46 R. P. Feynman. 1965, The Character of Physical Law.

MIT Press, Cambridge.

47 R.P. Feynman, Robert B. Leighton, and Mathew Sands.

1963, The Feynman Lectures on Physics. Addison

Wesley, Reading. In 3 volumes.

48 H. Freudenthal. 1961, The Concept of the Role of

Model in Mathematics and Natural and Social

Sciences. D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht.

49 George Gale. 1979, Theory of Science: An

introduction to the History. McGraw-Hill Book

Company, New York.

50 Galilei Galileo. 159?, De Motu. The University of

Wisconsin Press, Madison. Unpublished work,

written by Galileo around 1590s, Translated by

Drabkin, I.E. 1960.

51 Galilei Galileo. 1632, Dialogues Concerning the Two

Chief World Systems. University of California

Press, Los Angeles. Translated by Stillman Drake


52 Galilei Galileo. 1636, Dialogues Concerning Two New

Sciences. Dover Publications, Inc., New York.

Translated by Henry Crew and Alfenso De Salvio,


53 Neal W. Gilbert. 1960, Renaissance Concepts of

Method. Columbia University Press, New York.

54 Neal W. Gilbert. 1963, Galileo and the school of

padua. Journal of History of Philosophy, 1:223-31.

55 Marjorie Grene. 1963, A Portrait of Aristotle.

Faber and Faber, London.

56 Mirko Drazen Grmek, Robert S Cohen, and Guido (Eds.)

Cimini. 1981, On Scientific Discovery: Erice

Lectures 1977. Reidel, Dordrecht.

57 N. Gulley. 1962, Plato's Theory of Knowledge.

Methuen & Company Ltd., London.

58 Ian Hacking, editor. 1981, Scientific Revolutions.

Oxford University Press, Oxford.

59 Ian Hacking. 1983, Representing and Intervening.

Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

60 Ian Hacking. 1983, Representing and Intervening.

Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

61 Jacques Hadamard. 1945, An Essay on the Psychology

of Invention in the Mathematical Field. Dover

Publications, New York.

62 Norwood Russell Hanson. 1958, The logic of

discovery. Journal of Philosophy, 55:1073-1089.

63 Norwood Russell Hanson. 1958, Patterns Of

Scientific Discovery. Cambridge University Press,


64 Norwood Russell Hanson. 1965, Number theory and

physical analogy. In Boston Studies in the

Philosophy of Science Vol. 2: In Honour of Philip

Frank. Humanities Press, New York.

65 Sophie Haroutunian. 1983, Equilibrium in the

Balance: A Study of Psychological Explanation.

Springer-Verlag, New York.

66 Rom Harrè. 1970, The Principles of Scientific

Thinking. Macmillan, New York.

67 T. L. Heath. 1956, The Thirteen Books of Euclid's

Elements. Dover Publishers, New York. Edited and

Translated by Heath.

68 T.L. Heath. 1897, The Works of Archimedes. Dover

Publications, Inc., New York. Translated.

69 Carl G. Hempel. 1952, Fundamentals of Concept

Formation in Empirical Science. Chicago University

Press, Chicago.

70 Carl G. Hempel. 1966, Philosophy of Natural

Science. Prentice-Hall, Inc., New Jersey.

71 Carl G. Hempel. 1970, On the `standard concption'

of scientific theories. In M. Radner and

S. Winokur, editors, Minnesota Studies in

Philosophy of Science, pages 142-163. Minnesota

University Press, Minneapolis.

72 M. Hesse. 1966, Models and Analogies in Science.

Norte Dame Press, Norte Dame.

73 M. Hesse. 1974, Structure of Scientific Inference.

Macmillan, London.

74 Cleveland P. Hickman. 1979, Integrated

Principles of Zoology. The C.V. Mosby Company,

St. Louis.

75 Gerald Holton. 1978, The Scientific Imagination:

Case Studies. Cambridge University Press,


76 Gerald Holton and D.H.D. Roller. 1958, Foundations

of Modern Physical Science. Addison-Wesley,


77 Terence Irwin. 1988, Aristotle's First Principles.

Clarendon Press, Oxford.

78 Max Jammer. 1967, Energy. In Paul Edwards, editor,

The Encyclopedia of Philosophy, pages 511-517. The

Macmillan Company and Free Press, New York.

79 Nicholas Jardine. 1976, Galileo's road to truth and

the demonstrative regress. Studies in History and

Philosophy of Science.

80 W. Stanley Jevons. 1958, The Principles of Science:

A Treatise on Logic and Scientific Method. Dover

Publications, New York.

81 Benjamin Jowett. 1952, The Dialogues of Plato.

Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc, Chicago.


82 Bernard Kaplan. 1971, Genetic psychology, genetic

epistemology, and theory of knowledge. In Theodor

Mischel, editor, Cognitive Development and

Epistemology, pages 31-61. Academic Press, New


83 Felix Kaufmann. 1978, The Infinite in Mathematics.

D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht. Edited by

Brian McGuinness.

84 K. Kelly. 1987, The logic of discovery. Philosophy

of Science, 54:435-452.

85 William Kneale and Martha Kneale. 1962, The

Development of Logic. Clarendon Press, Oxford.

86 Noretta Koertge. 1980, Analysis as a mathod of

discovery during the scientific revolution. In

T. Nickles, editor, Scientific Discovery, Logic,

and Rationality, pages pp. 139-159. Reidel

Publishing Inc., Dordrecht.

87 Stephan Korner. 1959, Conceptual Thinking: A

Logical Inquiry. Dover Publications Inc., New


88 W. Krajewski. 1977, Correspondence Principle and

Growth of Science. Reidel Publishing Company,


89 Saul Kripke. 1971, Identity and necessity. In Ted

Honderich and Myles Burnyeat, editors, Philosophy

as it is, page 567ff. New York University, New

York. The collection published 1979.

90 Saul Kripke. 1972, Naming and necessity. In Donald

Davidson and Gilbert Harman, editors, Semantics of

Natural Language. Reidel Publishing Inc.,


91 Thomas Kuhn. 1977, Essential Tension. California

University Press, California.

92 Thomas S. Kuhn. 1970, The Structure of Scientific

Revolutions. University of Chicago Press, Chicago,

second edition.

93 Thomas S. Kuhn. 1977, On theory-change as structure

change: Comments on the sneed formalism. In Robert

E. Butts and Jaakko Hintikka, editors, Historical

and Philosophical Dimensions of Logic, Methodology

and Philosophy of Science, volume 12 of The

University of Western Ontario Series in Philosophy

of Science, pages 289-309. D. Reidel Publishing

Company, Dordrecht.

94 Henry E. Jr. Kyburg. 1984, Theory and Measurement.

Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

95 Imre Lakatos. 1976, Proofs and Refutations: The

Logic of Mathematical Discovery. Cambridge

University Press, Cambridge.

96 Imre Lakatos. 1978, Mathematics, Science and

Epistemology, volume 2. Cambridge University

Press, Cambridge.

97 Imre Lakatos and Alan Musgrave, editors. 1970,

Criticism and Growth of Knowledge. Cambridge

University Press, Cambridge.

98 D. Lamb and Easton S.M. 1984, Multiple Discovery:

The Pattern of Scientific Progress. Avebury

Publishing Company, England.

99 Pat Langley, Herbert Simon, Gary L. Bradshaw, and

Jan M Zytkow. 1987, Scientific Discovery:

Computational Explorations of the Creative

Proceses. The MIT Press, Cambridge.

100 Larry Laudan. 1977, Progress and Its Problems.

Routledge and Kegan Paul, London.

101 Larry Laudan. 1980, Why was the logic of discovery

abandoned? In Thomas Nickles, editor, Scientific

Discovery, Logic, and Rationality, pages

181-191. D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht.

Reprinted with changes in Laudan 1981.

102 Larry Laudan. 1981, Science and Hypothesis.

Routledge and Kegan Paul, Dordrecht.

103 Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier. 1790, Elements of

Chemistry. Dover Publications, Inc., New York.

Translated by Robert Kerr, Dover Edition 1965.

104 T.M. Lowry. 1936, Historical Introduction to

Chemistry. Macmillan, London.

105 Michael E. Malone. 1993, Kuhn reconstructed:

Incommensurability without relativism. Studies in

History and Philosophy of Science, 24(1):69-93.

106 Peggy Marchi. 1980, The method of analysis in

mathematics. In T. Nickles, editor, Scientific

Discovery, Logic, and Rationality, pages

pp. 159-179. Reidel Publishing Inc., Dordrecht.

107 S.F. Mason. 1956, Main Currents of Scientific

Thought: A History of the Sciences. Abelard

Schuman, New York.

108 Robert McLaughlin. 1982, Invention and induction:

Laudan, simon, and the logic of discovery.

Philosophy of Science, 49:198-211.

109 G. Nagarjuna. 1993, Greek thematic pairs and the

origins of the method of analysis and synthesis.

Journal of Foundational Research, I:99-125.

110 Ernst Nagel. 1961, The Structure of Science:

Problems in the Logic of Explanation. Routledge

and Kegan Paul, London.

111 Thomas Nickles. 1984, Positive science and

discoverability. PSA 1984, 1:13-27.

112 Thomas Nickles. 1985, Beyond divorce: Current

status of the discovery debate. Philosophy of

Science, 52:177-206.

113 Thomas Nickles. 1990, Discovery logics.

Philosophica, pages 901-926.

114 Thomas Nickles (ed.). 1980, Scientific Discovery,

Logic, and Rationality. D. Reidel Publishing

Company, Dordrecht.

115 J.R. Partington. 1960, A Short History of

Chemistry. Macmilan & Co Ltd., London.

116 David Pearce. 1981, Is there any theoretical

justification for a nonstatement view of theories?

Synthese, 46:1-39.

117 Charles Sanders Peirce. 1960, Collected Papers of

Charles Sanders Peirce. Belknap Press, Harward.

118 Charles Saunders Peirce. 1985. In Carolyn Eisele,

editor, Historical Perspectives on Peirce's Logic

of Science: A History of Science Part-I. Mouton

Publishers, Berlin.

119 Marcello Pera. 1981, Inductive method and

scientific discovery. In Grmek, editor, On

Scientific Discovery: Erice Lectures 1977. Reidel,


120 C.E. Perrin. 1988, Research traditions, lavoisier,

and the chemical revolution. Osiris, 4:53-81.

This work, cited in Basu 1992, could not be

consulted due to non-availability.

121 Jean Piaget. 1950, The Psychology of Intelligence.

Routledge and Kegan Paul, London.

122 Jean Piaget. 1968, Structuralism. Routledge and

Kegan Paul, London. Translated and edited by

Chaninah Maschler.

123 Jean Piaget. 1970, Genetic Epistemology. Columbia

University Press, New York. Translated by

E. Duckworth.

124 Karl Popper. 1959, The Logic of Scientific

Discovery. Hutchinson, London.

125 Karl Popper. 1963, Conjectures and Refutations:

The Growth of Scientific Knowledge. Routledge and

Kegan Paul, London.

126 Karl Popper. 1972, Objective Knowledge. Clarendon

Press, Oxford.

127 Hilary Putnam. Analytic and synthetic. In

H. Feigl and G. Maxwell, editors, Minnesota Studies

in Philosophy of Science, Vol III, pages

358-397. University of Minnesota Press,


128 Hilary Putnam. 1962, What theories are not? In

E. Nagel, P. Suppes, and A. Tarski, editors, Logic,

Methodology and Philosophy of Science. Stanford

University Press, Stanford.

129 Hilary Putnam. 1979, Mathematics, Matter and

Method. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

130 Quine. 1977, Natural kinds. In Stephen

P. Schwartz, editor, Naming Necessity and Natural

Kinds, pages 155-175. Cornel University Press,


131 W.V.O. Quine. 1953, From A Logical Point Of View.

Harward University Press, Massachusetts.

132 F.P. Ramsey. 1931, The Foundations of Mathematics

and Other Logical Essays. Kegan Paul, London.

133 J.H. Jr. Randall. 1960, Aristotle. Columbia

University Press, New York.

134 J.H. Jr. Randall. 1964, Career of Philosophy: From

the Middle Ages to the Enlightenment. Columbia

University Press, New York.

135 John Read. 1961, Through Alchemy to Chemistry: A

Procession of Ideas & Personalities. G. Bell and

Sons, Ltd., London.

136 Hans Reichenbach. 1938, Experience and Prediction.

University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

137 Alexander Rosenberg. 1985, The Structure of

Biological Science. Cambridge University Press,


138 W.D. (ed.) Ross. 1908-52, The Works of Aristotle.

Oxford University Press, London.

139 Gerasomos Xenophon Santas. 1979, Socrates:

Philosophy in Plato's Early Dialogues. Routledge

and Kegan Paul, London.

140 R.E. Schofield. 1964, Joseph priestley, the theory

of oxidation and the nature of matter. Journal of

the History of Ideas, 25:285-294. This work, cited

in Basu 1992, could not be consulted due to


141 Dudley Shapere. 1964, The structure of scientific

revolutions. Philosophical Review, 73:383-394.

142 Dudley Shapere. 1977, The structure of scientific

theories. pages 518-599. University of Illinois

Press, Illinois, second edition. Also reprinted in

Shapere 1984.

143 Dudley Shapere. 1984, Reason and the Search for

Knowledge: Investigations in the Philosophy of

Science, volume 78 of Boston Studies in the

Philosophy of Science. D. Reidel Publishing

Company, Dordrecht, Holland.

144 Herbert Simon. 1977, Models of Discovery and Other

Topics in the Methods of Science. Reidel,

Dordrecht, Holland.

145 Aron Sloman. 1978, The Computer Revolution in

Philosophy: Philosophy and Models and Mind.

Harvester Press, Brighton.

146 J.D. Sneed. 1971, The Logical Structure of

Mathematical Physics. D. Reidel Publishing

Company, Dordrecht.

147 Wolfgang Stegmueller. 1973, Structure and dynamics

of scientific theories: Some reflections on

j.d. sneed and t.s. kuhn. Erkentnis, 9:75-100.

148 Wolfgang Stegmueller. 1976, The Structure and

Dynamics of Theories. Springer Verlag.

149 Wolfgang Stegmueller. 1979, The Structuralist View

of Theories: A Possible Analogue of Bourbaki

Structures. Springer Verlag.

150 Grice & Strawson. 1956, In defense of a dogma.

Philosophical Review, 65:141-158.

151 M. W. Strickberger. 1990, Genetics. New York:

Macmillan Publishing Company, third edition.

152 A. H. Sturtevant. 1965, A History of Genetics.

New York: Harper & Row, New York.

153 Frederick Suppe, editor. 1977, The Structure of

Scientific Theories. University of Illinois Press,

Illinois, second edition. Edited with a critical

introduction and an afterword by Suppe.

154 Patrick Suppes. 1957, Introduction to Logic.

Litton Educational Publishing, New York.

155 Patrick Suppes. 1965, What is a scientific theory.

In F. Suppe, editor, Philosophy Reprint Collection,

volume XIV. Illinois.

156 Patrick Suppes. 1969, A comparison of the meaning

and uses of models in mathematics and the empirical

sciences. In Studies in the Methodology and

Foundations of Science. D. Reidel Publishing

Company, Dordrecht.

157 A. Tarski. 1944, The semantic conception of truth

and the foundations of semantics. Philosophy and

Phenomenological Research, 4.

158 A. Tarski. 1961, Introduction to Logic and to the

Methodology of Deductive Sciences. Oxford

University Press, New York.

159 Paul Thagard. 1988, Computational Philosophy of

Science. MIT, Cambridge.

160 Frank Thilly. 1951, History of Philosophy.

Central Book Depot, Allahabad. Revised by Ledges


161 Paul Thompson. 1992, Mathematics in the biological

sciences. International Studies in the Philosophy

of Science, 6(3):241-248.

162 Stephen Toulmin. 1953, The Philosophy of Science.

Hutchinson University Library, London.

163 Stephen Toulmin. 1971, The concept of stages in

physical development. New York: Academic Press.

164 Stephen Toulmin. 1972, Human Understanding.

Clarendon Press, Oxford.

165 Stephen Toulmin. 1972, Rationality and scientific

discovery. PSA 1972.

166 Stephen Toulmin and June Goodfield. 1962, The

Architecture of Matter. New York: Harper & Row.

167 Bas C. van Fraassen. 1970, On the extension of

beth's semantics of physical theories. Philosophy

of Science, 37:325-339.

168 Bas C. van Fraassen. 1980, The Scientific Image.

Clarendon Press, Oxford.

169 Bas C. van Fraassen. 1989, Laws and Symmetry.

Oxford University Press, Oxford.

170 Barbara Von Eckardt. 1993, What is Cognitive

Science? The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

171 Marx W. Wartofsky. 1968, Conceptual Foundations of

Scientific Thought: An Introduction to the

Philosophy Of Science. Macmillan Company, London.

172 Herman Weyl. 1949, Philosophy of Mathematics and

Natural Science. Princeton: Princeton University


173 Herman Weyl. 1952, Symmetry. Princeton University

Press, Princeton.

174 Lancelot Law Whyte. 1960, Essay on Atomism: From

Democritus to 1960. Wesleyan University Press.

175 Eugene P. Wigner. 1964, Symmetry and conservation

laws. Physics Today, 17(3):34-40.

176 Eugene P. Wigner. 1967, Symmetries and

Reflections. Indiana University Press, Indiana.

177 Bernard Williams. 1978, Descartes: The Project of

Pure Enquiry. Pelican Books.

178 Ludwig Wittgenstein. 1953, Philosophical

Investigations. New York: The Macmillan Company,

New York.

179 Ludwig Wittgenstein. 1958, The Blue and Brown

Books. Basil Blackwell, Oxford.


Repository Staff Only: item control page