Trichomonas vaginalis infection in human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive Nigerian women: The public health significance

Uneke, Chigozie Jesse and Alo, Moses Nnaemeka and Ogbu, Ogbonnaya and Ugwuoru, Duhu Clifford (2007) Trichomonas vaginalis infection in human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive Nigerian women: The public health significance. [Journal (On-line/Unpaginated)]

Full text available as:



Evidence from the biology and epidemiology of Trichomonas vaginalis suggests that this protozoan parasite may play an important role in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission dynamics, especially where heterosexual behaviour and a high prevalence of HIV obtain. The prevalence of T. vaginalis was evaluated among HIV-seropositive Nigerian women, in an anonymous, unlinked, cross-sectional survey. Of the total of 250 HIV-seropositive women studied using the wet mount preparations from high vaginal swab (HVS) and urine specimens, the presence of T. vaginalis was demonstrated in 61(24.4%) of the HVS specimens and 57(22.8%) of the urine specimens. The highest prevalence of T. vaginalis infection (32.6%) was recorded among individuals in the 26-30 years age category and the lowest (18.8%) among the age categories 20-25 years and above 40 years. Since the coinfection of T. vaginalis and HIV has public health implications for HIV prevention as it confirms the practice of unprotected sex, educational efforts must be aimed at sexually active persons and high risk groups and are best focused upon the use of barrier precautions, particularly condom use.

Item Type:Journal (On-line/Unpaginated)
Keywords:Trichomonas vaginalis, HIV, Women, Prevalence
Subjects:JOURNALS > Online Journal of Health and Allied Sciences
ID Code:5846
Deposited By: Kakkilaya Bevinje, Dr. Srinivas
Deposited On:28 Nov 2007 03:14
Last Modified:11 Mar 2011 08:57

References in Article

Select the SEEK icon to attempt to find the referenced article. If it does not appear to be in cogprints you will be forwarded to the paracite service. Poorly formated references will probably not work.

1. Rein MF. Trichomonas vaginalis. In Principles and Practices of Infectious Diseases, eds Mandell GL, Bennet JE & Dolin R (eds). Churchill Livingston. New York: 1995. pp. 2493– 2497.

2. Petrin D, Dalgaty K, Bhatt R,Garber G. Clinical and microbiological aspects of Trichomonas vaginalis. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1998;11:300–317.

3. Danesh IS, Stephen JM, Gorbach J. Neonatal Trichomonas vaginalis infection. J Emerg Med. 1995;13:51– 54.

4. Sobel JD. Vaginitis. NEJM. 1996;337:1896–1903.

5. Coth MF, Pastorek JG, Nugent RP, et al. Trichomonas vaginalis associated with low birth weight and preterm delivery. Sex Transm Dis. 1997;24:353–360.

6. Soper DE, Bump RC, Hurt WG. Bacterial vaginosis and trichomoniasis vaginitis are risk factors for cuff cellulitis after abdominal hysterectomy. Am J Obstetr Gynecol. 1990;163:1016–1021.

7. Wolner-Hanssen P, Krieger J, Stevens CE. Clinical manifestations of vaginal trichomoniasis. JAMA. 1989;261:571-576.

8. Laga M, Manoka A, Kivuvu M et al. Non-ulcerative sexually transmitted diseases as risk factors for HIV-1 transmission in women: results from a cohort study. AIDS. 1993;7:95-102.

9. Ghys PD, Diallo MO, Ettiegne-Traore V et al. Genital ulcers associated with human immunodeficiency virus-related immunosuppression in female sex workers in Abidjan, Ivory Coast. J Infect Dis. 1995;172:1371-1374.

10. ter Muelen J, Mgaya HN, Chang-Claude J et al. Risk factors for HIV infection in gynaecological inpatients in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania, 1988-1990. East Afr Med J. 1992;69:688-692.

11. World Health Organization (WHO). AIDS epidemic update. UNAIDS/WHO; Geneva. 2004.

12. Federal Ministry of Health Nigeria (FMHN). National HIV/AIDS and Reproductive Health Survey. Abuja. 2003.

13. UNAIDS. 2004 Report on the global AIDS epidemic. UNAIDS; Geneva. 2004.

14. Wasserheit JN. Epidemiological synergy. Interrelationships between human immunodeficiency virus infection and other sexually transmitted diseases. Sex Transm Dis.1992;19:1-77.

15. Federal Ministry of Health Nigeria (FMHN). Technical report on 2003 National HIV/Syphilis Sentinel Survey among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Nigeria. FMHN; Abuja. 2004.

16. Madico G, Quinn TC, Rompalo A et al. Diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis infection by PCR using vaginal swab samples. J Clin Microbiol. 1998;36:3205-3210.

17. Schwebke JR, Morgan SC, Pinson GB. Validity of self-obtained vaginal specimens for diagnosis of trichomoniasis. J Clin Microbiol. 1997;35:1618-1619.

18. Sutton MY, Sternberg M, Nsuami M et al. Trichomoniasis in pregnant human immunodeficiency virus-infected and human immunodeficiency virus-uninfected Congolese women: prevalence, risk factors, and association with low birth weight. Am J Obstetr Gynecol. 1999;181:656-562.

19. Bersoff-Matcha SJ, Horgan MM, Fraser VJ, Mundy LM, Stoner BP. Sexually transmitted disease acquisition among women infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 1998;178:1174-1177.

20. Cu-Uvin S, Hogan JW, Warren D et al. Prevalence of lower genital tract infections among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive and high-risk HIV- seronegative women. HIV Epidemiology Research Study Group. Clin Infect Dis. 1999;29:1145-1150.

21. Sorvillo F, Kovacs A, Kerndt P et al. Risk factors for trichomoniasis among women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection at a public clinic in Los Angeles County, California: implications for HIV prevention. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1998;58:495-500.

22. Niccolai LM, Kopicko JJ, Kassie A et al. Incidence and predictors of reinfection with Trichomonas vaginalis in HIV-infected women. Sex Transm Dis. 2000;27:284-288.

23. Guenthner PC, Secor WE, Dezzutti CS. Trichomonas vaginalis-induced epithelial monolayer disruption and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication: implications for the sexual transmission of HIV-1. Infect Immunol. 2005;73:4155-4160.

24. Wiese W, Patel SR, Patel SC et al. A meta-analysis of the Papanicolaou smear and wet mount for the diagnosis of vaginal trichomoniasis. Am J Med. 2000;108:301-308.

25. Fouts AC, Kraus SJ. Trichomonas vaginalis: reevaluation of its clinical presentation and laboratory diagnosis. J Infect Dis. 1980;141:137–143.

26. Krieger JN, Tam MR, Stevens CE et al. Diagnosis of trichomoniasis: comparison of conventional wet-mount examination with cytologic studies, cultures, and monoclonal antibody staining of direct specimens. JAMA. 1988;259:1223–1227.

27. Rouet F, Ekouevi DK, Inwoley A et al. Field Evaluation of a Rapid Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Serial Serologic Testing Algorithm for Diagnosis and Differentiation of HIV Type 1 (HIV-1), HIV-2, and Dual HIV-1– HIV-2 Infections in West African Pregnant Women. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:4147–4153.


Repository Staff Only: item control page