Effect of use of socially marketed faucet fitted earthen vessel/sodium hypochlorite solution on diarrhea prevention at household level in rural India

Dongre, AR and Deshmukh, PR and Garg, BS (2008) Effect of use of socially marketed faucet fitted earthen vessel/sodium hypochlorite solution on diarrhea prevention at household level in rural India. [Journal (On-line/Unpaginated)]

Full text available as:



Objective: To evaluate the effect of socially marketed faucet fitted to earthen vessel / sodium hypochlorite solution on diarrhea prevention at rural household level as a social intervention for diarrhea prevention under ‘Community Led Initiatives for Child Survival (CLICS) program. Methods: Unmatched case-control study was carried out in 10 villages of Primary Health Centre, Anji, located in rural central India. During the study period, 144 households used either faucet fitted earthen vessel to store drinking water or used sodium hypochlorite solution (SH) for keeping drinking water safe. These served as case households for the present study. 213 neighborhood control households from same locality who used neither of the methods were also selected. Results: Odds ratio for households who used faucets fitted to earthen vessel was 0.49 (95% CI= 0.25 – 0.95). Odds ratio for households who used sodium hypochlorite solution was 0.55 (95% CI= 0.31 – 0.98). Use of these methods by the community, would prevent about 27 percent and 22 percent cases of the diarrhea (Population attributable risk proportion = 0.25 by faucets fitted to earthen vessels and 0.22 by use of sodium hypochlorite solution) respectively. Conclusion: To ensure safe drinking water at household level, the effective and cheap methods like fitting faucet to traditionally used earthen vessel and/or use of sodium hypochlorite solution must be promoted through community participation at household level for cost and culture sensitive rural people in India

Item Type:Journal (On-line/Unpaginated)
Keywords:Community participation, Diarrhea prevention, Faucet, Hypochlorite solution, Earthen vessel, Social marketing
Subjects:JOURNALS > Online Journal of Health and Allied Sciences
ID Code:6197
Deposited By: Kakkilaya Bevinje, Dr. Srinivas
Deposited On:19 Sep 2008 14:00
Last Modified:11 Mar 2011 08:57

References in Article

Select the SEEK icon to attempt to find the referenced article. If it does not appear to be in cogprints you will be forwarded to the paracite service. Poorly formated references will probably not work.

1. Registrar General of India. Census of India 2001 [Cited 2006 January 15]. Available from URL:

2. National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2): Nutrition and the prevalence of anaemia. Mumbai: International Institute for Population Sciences and ORC Macro; 1999

3. VanDerslice J, Briscoe J. All coliforms are not created equal: A comparison of the effects of water source and in-house water contamination on infantile diarrheal disease. Wat. Resour. Res. 1993;29:1983-1985.

4. Tuttle J, Ries AA, Chimba RM, Perera CU, Bean NH, Griffin PM. Antimicrobial resistant epidemic Shigella dysenteriae Type 1 in Zambia: modes of transmission. J. Infect. Dis. 1995;171:371-375.

5. World Health Organization. Improving water and sanitation hygiene behaviours for the reduction of diarrhoeal disease: the report of an informal consultation. CWS/CDD programmes, Geneva: World Health Organization; 1993

6. National Institute of Communicable Diseases. Chlorination of drinking water. [Cited 2005 January 15]. Available from URL:

7. Yeager BAC, Lanata CF, Lazo F, Verastegui H, Black RE. Transmission factors and socio-economic status as determinants of diarrheal incidence in Lima, Peru. J. Diarrhoeal Dis. Res. 1991;9:186-193.

8. National Family Health Survey, India 1998-1999. [Cited 2005 January 15]. Available from URL:

9. Mistry NF, Birdi TJ, Antia NH. Community aspects of diarrhoeal disease control In Diarrhoeal Diseases: Current Status, Research Trends and Field Studies-Proceedings of The Third Sir Dorabji Tata Symposium. Raghunath D, Nayak R. (ed.). Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Co.Ltd. 2003: 305-311

10. Mahmud MA, Hossain MM, Huang DB, Habib M, DuPont HL. Sociodemographic, environmental and clinical risk factors for developing persistent diarrhea among infants in a rural community of Egypt. J. Health Popul. Nutr. 2001;19(4):313-319.

11. Gilbert N. Mobilizing Madagascar households to disinfect their drinking water. WATERfront, Issue 16. UNICEF; 2003

12. Thomas F, Clasen Brown J, Collin S, Suntura O, Cairncross S. Reducing diarrhea through the use of household based ceramic water filters: A randomized, controlled trial in rural Bolivia. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 2004:70(6);651-657.

13. Blum D, Emeh RN, Huttly SR, Dosunmu-Ogunbi O, Okeke N, Ajala M, Okoro JI, Akujobi C, Kirkwood BR, Feachem RG. The Imo State (Nigeria) Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Project, 1. Description of the project, evaluation methods, and impact on intervening variables. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene 1990;84(2):309-315.

14. Government of India. National Rural Health Mission. [Cited 2006 February 12]. Available from URL:

15. Government of India. Reproductive and Child Health Programme - II. New Delhi: Government of India; 2004


Repository Staff Only: item control page