Influence of Land-use on the Fitness of Anopheles gambiae, the Principal Vector of Malaria in Nigeria

Olayemi, Israel Kayode (2009) Influence of Land-use on the Fitness of Anopheles gambiae, the Principal Vector of Malaria in Nigeria. [Journal (On-line/Unpaginated)]

Full text available as:

PDF - Published Version


Background: Urbanization often results in profound environmental alterations that may promote the transmission of malaria. Though, land-use practices in urban areas have been linked with proliferations of suitable larval breeding habitats of malaria vectors, no attempt has been made to systematically investigate the influence of land-use practices on malaria transmission in Nigeria. Objectives: To elucidate the influence of land-use practices on larval development and adult body size of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes in Minna, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Newly-hatched larvae of An. gmbiae mosquitoes were reared in semi-natural habitats stationed in five different sites, each representing the major land-use types in the area. The larvae were monitored daily for Duration of Immature Development (DID) and Immature Survival Rate (ISR); while Wing Length (WL) was used as an index of adult body size. Results: DID, ISR and WL varied significantly (P < 0.05) among the land-use categories; with lager numbers of bigger mosquitoes produced at a faster rate in the artificial than natural land-use sites. Water temperature for larval development was best in the Refuse Dump (RD) site (mean = 28.11 ± 2.50oC) and consequently the shortest DID (mean = 9.70 ± 0.74 days), as well as, the largest mosquitoes (mean WL = 3.10 ± 0.90 mm), were recorded in this land-use category. However, while ISR was highest (mean = 96.30 ± 2.78%) in Farm Land (FL), the mosquitoes that emerged from this site were the smallest (mean WL = 1.96 ± 0.51mm). The Natural Vegetation (NV) land-use category was the least productive, as the larvae took the longest time (13.29 ± 1.69 days) to develop, and survived least (42.94 ± 7.50%) in this site. Conclusion: The land-use practices in Minna enhanced the fitness of An. gambiae, and may increase the vectorial capacity of the species for malaria transmission in the area. Targeted larviciding interventions will greatly contribute to malaria control efforts in Minna, Nigeria.

Item Type:Journal (On-line/Unpaginated)
Keywords:Malaria, Mosquitoes, Survival Rates, Temperature, Wing Length
Subjects:JOURNALS > Online Journal of Health and Allied Sciences
ID Code:6390
Deposited By: Kakkilaya Bevinje, Dr. Srinivas
Deposited On:28 Mar 2009 09:32
Last Modified:11 Mar 2011 08:57

References in Article

Select the SEEK icon to attempt to find the referenced article. If it does not appear to be in cogprints you will be forwarded to the paracite service. Poorly formated references will probably not work.

1.World Health Organization. World malaria report. 2005. Available at

2.World Health Organization. Africa Malaria Report. World Health Organization, Geneva. 2002

3.Federal Ministry of Health. National strategic plan for Roll Back Malaria in Nigeria 2001. Federal Ministry of Health, Abuja, Nigeria. 2001; 57pp

4.Onyabe DY, Conn JE. The distribution of two major malaria vectors, Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles arabiensis, in Nigeria. Memorias Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janairo 2001; 96(8) :1081–1084

5.Appawu M, Owusu-Agyei S, Dadzie S et al. Malaria transmission dynamics at a site in northern Ghana proposed for testing malaria vaccines. Tropical Medicine and International Health 2004; 9(1) :164–170

6.Olayemi IK, Ande AT. Plasmodium sporozoite infection rates and entomological inoculation rates of anopheline mosquitoes in Ilorin, Nigeria. International Journal of Medicine and Tropical diseases 2008; (In press)

7.Gimnig JE, Ombok M, Kamau L, Hawley WA. Characteristics of larval anopheline (Diptera: Culicidae) habitats in western Kenya. Journal of Medical Entomology 2001;38 :282–288

8.Minakawa N, Githure JI, Beier JC, Yan G. Anopheline mosquito Survival strategies during the dry period in western Kenya. Journal of Medical Entomology 2001;38:388-392

9.World Health Organization. Manual on practical entomology in malaria. Part II. Methods and Techniques. World Health Organization 1975; Offset Publication 13, Geneva

10.Jacob B, Regens JL, Mbogo CM et al. Occurrence and distribution of Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) larval habitats on land cover change sites in urban Kisumu and urban Malindi, Kenya. Journal of Medical Entomology 2003;40 :777-784

11.Utzinger J, Tozan Y, Singer BH. Efficacy and cost-effectiveness of environmental management for malaria control. Tropical Medicine and International Health 2001;6:667-687

12.Niger State Town Planning Division. Minna, the capital city of Niger state, Nigeria: Master Plan 1979 – 2000. New Nigerian Newspapers Limited, Kaduna, Nigeria 1980; 214pp

13.Munga S, Minakawa N, Zhou G et al. Association between land cover and habitat productivity of malaria vectors in western Kenyan highlands. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2006;74(1):69-75

14.Olayemi IK, Ande AT, Isah B, Idris AR. Epidemiology of malaria inrelation to climatic variables in Minna, Nigeria. International Journal of Medical Sciences 2008;(Accepted Paper)


Repository Staff Only: item control page