@unpublished{cogprints3991, month = {December}, title = {Innovation as Evolution }, author = {Mr. Deni Khanafiah and Mr. Hokky Situngkir}, year = {2004}, keywords = {artifact, innovation, evolution, memetic, phylomemetic tree, cellular phone}, url = {http://cogprints.org/3991/}, abstract = {Cellular phone is one of the most developing technological artifacts today. The evolution occurs through random innovation. Our effort is trying to view the evolution of this artifact from memetic?s point of view. By constructing a phylomemetic tree based on cellular phone memes to infer or estimate the evolutionary history and relationship among cellular phone. We adopt several methods, which are commonly used in constructing phylogenetic tree, they are UPGMA algorithm and Parsimony Maximum algorithm to construct cellphone phylomemetic tree. Therefore we compare with the innovation tree, which is based on serial number and their appearance time. From phylomemetic tree, we then analyze the process of a cellular phone innovation through looking out on the cellular phone type lies in the same cluster. The comparison of the simulation tree result shows a generally different branching pattern, giving a presumption that innovation in cellular phone is not really relating with their serial number, but occurs merely because of random mutation of allomeme design and competes with its technological development. } }