@misc{cogprints4149, volume = {117}, editor = {Luc Berthouze and Hideki Kozima and Christopher G. Prince and Giulio Sandini and Georgi Stojanov and Giorgio Metta and Christian Balkenius}, title = {Synchronisation and Differentiation: Two Stages of Coordinative Structure}, author = {Tomoyuki Yamamoto and Tsutomu Fujinami}, publisher = {Lund University Cognitive Studies}, year = {2004}, pages = {97--104}, keywords = {motion analysis, periodic movement, skill acquisition, joint movement synchronization}, url = {http://cogprints.org/4149/}, abstract = {While motor skill acquisition process is regarded as development of coordination, typically regarded as synchronisation among joint movements, we found another phenomenon which we call differentiation as a consequence of synchronisation. The synchronised movement established is decomposed into several sections or modulated to be executed on different timings without breaking the coordination among them, resulting in the gain of efficiency or flexibility. In the acquisition of skills, the coordinative structure thus goes through two stages: synchronisation and differentiation. We verify in this paper our observation through our experiments and dynamical analysis of the kneading of ceramic art and playing the shaker in samba.} }