@misc{cogprints4249, volume = {3}, number = {4}, month = {October}, author = {Beatriz Fuertes and Jorge Toquero and Ram{\'o}n Arroyo-Espliguero and Ignacio F Lozano}, editor = {Balbir Singh and Yash Lokhandwala and Johnson Francis and Anup Gupta}, title = {Pacemaker Lead Displacement: Mechanisms And Management}, publisher = {Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology Group}, year = {2003}, journal = {Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology Journal}, pages = {231--238}, keywords = {packemaker lead displacement; mechanism; management}, url = {http://cogprints.org/4249/}, abstract = { Pacemaker lead displacements can be defined as any other pacemaker position change, whether the functionality of the pacemaker is affected or not. However, only those displacements that provoke a malfunction in the pacing system are clinically relevant. Chronologically speaking, there are early displacements, which occur within the first six weeks after implantation, and late displacements, after this period of time1. Early displacements are more frequent than late displacements and they usually affect atrial leads. The incidence of early displacements is 1\% in VVI pacemakers and 5.2\% in DDD pacemakers (3.8\% of the cases affecting atrial leads and 1.4\% ventricular leads). Acceptable displacement rates should probably be less than 1 percent for ventricular leads and no more than 2 to 3 percent for atrial leads. These values are higher in biventricular pacing devices, related to coronary sinus lead displacement. Early lead displacements are the most frequent cause of reintervention, involving atrial leads in the majority of cases. After the first six weeks, late displacements are remarkable and they can rarely be related to a specific event2. } }