@misc{cogprints4689, volume = {6}, number = {2}, month = {April}, author = {Canan Ayabakan and Eric Rosenthal}, editor = {Balbir Singh and Yash Lokhandwala and Johnson Francis and Anup Gupta and Joydeep Ghosh}, title = {Endocardial Pacemaker Implantation in Neonates and Infants }, publisher = {Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology Group}, year = {2006}, journal = {Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology Journal}, pages = {57--62}, keywords = {Pacemaker; Endocardial pacing; Epicardial pacing; Lead extraction}, url = {http://cogprints.org/4689/}, abstract = {Transvenous pacemaker lead implantation is the preferred method of pacing in adult patients. Lead performance and longevity are superior and the implantation approach can be performed under local anaesthetic with a very low morbidity. In children, and especially in neonates and infants, the epicardial route was traditionally chosen until the advent of smaller generators and lead implantation techniques that allowed growth of the child without lead displacement. Endocardial implantation is not universally accepted, however, as there is an incidence of venous occlusion of the smaller veins of neonates and infants with concerns for loss of venous access in the future. Growing experience with lower profile leads, however, reveals that endocardial pacing too can be performed with low morbidity and good long-term results in neonates and infants.} }