@misc{cogprints5330, volume = {10}, number = {4-5}, title = {Can a machine be conscious? How? }, author = {Stevan Harnad}, year = {2003}, pages = {69--75}, journal = {Journal of Consciousness Studies}, keywords = {artificial intelligence, consciousness, Turing Test, mind/body problem, other-mind problem, artificial life}, url = {http://cogprints.org/5330/}, abstract = {A "machine" is any causal physical system, hence we are machines, hence machines can be conscious. The question is: which kinds of machines can be conscious? Chances are that robots that can pass the Turing Test -- completely indistinguishable from us in their behavioral capacities -- can be conscious (i.e. feel), but we can never be sure (because of the "other-minds" problem). And we can never know HOW they have minds, because of the "mind/body" problem. We can only know how they pass the Turing Test, but not how, why or whether that makes them feel.} }