--- abstract: |+ This paper looks at three sets of data, two from Behdini-Kurdish and one from Estonian, where a metarepresentational use analysis enhances the linguistic analysis of certain linguistic forms. The aspective marker da in Behdini is used in two ways, as a near counterfactual past and a distant habitual past: (1) ew da genim- n-in They IM wheat-OBL.M.SG grow-3PL 1. 'They set out to sow wheat (but where prevented from doing it)' 2. 'They used to grow wheat (in old times; of the people of a village)' My claim is that da encodes a procedure to embed the proposition expressed under a higher order respresentation such as 'the speaker intends the addressee to imagine a situation where P holds,' and I'll argue that the attested uses can be pragmatically explained on the basis of this semantics. Thus it appears that metarepresentations can explain some phenomena normally attributed to the category of aspect. The future marker d in Behdini is used syntactically in a very similar way: (2) ew d xwarin- k-in they FUT meal-OBL.F.SG prepare-3PL 'they will prepare the meal' I present arguments both from within Behdini as well as cross-linguistically that the future tense in Behdini should be analysed as procedurally encoding metarepresentational use: the proposition expressed is to be embedded under a higher-order representation of the form 'the speaker intends the addressee to imagine a situation where P holds and P has not yet occured'. This analysis raises a number of questions for the analysis of future tense markers cross-linguistically. Finally, I argue that the so-called 'quotative mood' in Estonian is better analysed as attributive interpretive use marker. One of the many advantages of this analysis is the fact that it sheds light on the use of the quotative in narratives, especially folk tales: narrative exploits metarepresentations in various ways, hence it is not surprising to find interpretive use markers used as narrative forms. This raises the question whether other so-called 'narrative verb forms' in other langauges should be re-analysed as interpretive use markers. altloc: [] chapter: ~ commentary: ~ commref: ~ confdates: ' 13.-18. July 2003' conference: International Pragmatics Conference confloc: 'Toronto, University of Toronto' contact_email: ~ creators_id: [] creators_name: - family: Unger given: Christoph honourific: '' lineage: '' date: 2003 date_type: published datestamp: 2007-03-22 department: ~ dir: disk0/00/00/54/64 edit_lock_since: ~ edit_lock_until: ~ edit_lock_user: ~ editors_id: [] editors_name: [] eprint_status: archive eprintid: 5464 fileinfo: /style/images/fileicons/application_pdf.png;/5464/1/estbhd_metarep.pdf full_text_status: public importid: ~ institution: ~ isbn: ~ ispublished: unpub issn: ~ item_issues_comment: [] item_issues_count: 0 item_issues_description: [] item_issues_id: [] item_issues_reported_by: [] item_issues_resolved_by: [] item_issues_status: [] item_issues_timestamp: [] item_issues_type: [] keywords: 'Pragmatics, Linguistic Semantics, Procedural Semantics, Metarepresentation, Quotative, Evidentiality, Tense, Aspect' lastmod: 2011-03-11 08:56:48 latitude: ~ longitude: ~ metadata_visibility: show note: ~ number: ~ pagerange: ~ pubdom: FALSE publication: ~ publisher: ~ refereed: FALSE referencetext: | Blass, R. 1989: 'The grammaticalization of interpretive use: the case of re in Sissala.' Lingua 79: 299-326. Blass, R. 1990: Relevance relations in discourse. Cambridge: CUP. [EKG I] Erelt, Mati, Reet Kasik, Helle Metslang, Henno Rajandi, Kristiina Ross, Henn Saari, Kaja Tael, Silvi Vare 1993: Eesti Keele Grammatika [Grammar of Estonian]. Volume II: Sntaks. Tallinn: Eesti Teaduste Akadeemia Keele ja Kirjanduse Instituut [Institute of Language and Literature of the Estonian Academy of Sciences]. [EKG II] Erelt, Mati, Reet Kasik, Helle Metslang, Henno Rajandi, Kristiina Ross, Henn Saari, Kaja Tael, Silvi Vare 1995: Eesti Keele Grammatika [Grammar of Estonian]. Volume I: Morfoloogia. Tallinn: Eesti Teaduste Akadeemia Keele ja Kirjanduse Instituut [Institute of Language and Literature of the Estonian Academy of Sciences]. Itani, R. 1996: 'A relevance-based analysis of hearsay particles: With special reference to Japanese sentence-final particle tte.' In: R. Carston & S. Uchida (eds) Relevance Theory: Applications and Implications. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 47-68. Klaas, B. 1997: 'The quotative mood in the Baltic Sea areal.' In: M. Erelt (ed.) Estonian: Typological Studies II. Tartu: Tartu University Press. Smith, N. V. 1990: 'Observations on the pragmatics of tense.' UCL Working Papers on Linguistics 2, 82-94. Sperber, D. & D. Wilson 1995: Relevance. 2nd edition. Oxford: Blackwell. (1st edition 1986) Valgma, J. & N. Remmel 1970: Eesti Keele Grammatika. [Grammar of Estonian.] Tallinn: Valgus. Wilson, D. 2000: Metarepresentation in verbal communication. In: D. Sperber (ed.) Metarepresentations. Oxford: Blackwell. relation_type: [] relation_uri: [] reportno: ~ rev_number: 12 series: ~ source: ~ status_changed: 2007-09-12 17:10:05 subjects: - ling-sem - ling-prag succeeds: ~ suggestions: ~ sword_depositor: ~ sword_slug: ~ thesistype: ~ title: 'Metarepresentation, tense, aspect and narratives: the case of Behdini-Kurdish and Estonian' type: confpaper userid: 4992 volume: ~