@misc{cogprints5641, volume = {174}, number = {1-2}, month = {May}, author = {Eduardo Candelario-Jalil and Ravi S. Akundi and Harsharan S. Bhatia and Klaus Lieb and Kurt Appel and Eduardo Munoz and Michael Hull and Bernd L. Fiebich}, editor = {Cedric Raine}, title = {Ascorbic acid enhances the inhibitory effect of aspirin on neuronal cyclooxygenase-2-mediated prostaglandin E2 production.}, publisher = {Elsevier}, year = {2006}, journal = {Journal of Neuroimmunology}, pages = {39--51}, keywords = {vitamin C, cyclooxygenase-2, oxidative stress, Alzheimer?s disease, stroke, reactive oxygen species, neuroinflammation, NSAIDs, 8-isoprostanes, prostaglandin E synthase}, url = {http://cogprints.org/5641/}, abstract = {Inhibition of neuronal cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and hence prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has been suggested to protect neuronal cells in a variety of pathophysiological situations including Alzheimer's disease and ischemic stroke. Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) has also been shown to protect cerebral tissue in a variety of experimental conditions, which has been attributed to its antioxidant capacity. In the present study, we show that ascorbic acid dose-dependently inhibited interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta)-mediated PGE2 synthesis in the human neuronal cell line, SK-N-SH. Furthermore, in combination with aspirin, ascorbic acid augmented the inhibitory effect of aspirin on PGE2 synthesis. However, ascorbic acid had no synergistic effect along with other COX inhibitors (SC-58125 and indomethacin). The inhibition of IL-1beta-mediated PGE2 synthesis by ascorbic acid was not due to the inhibition of the expression of COX-2 or microsomal prostaglandin E synthase (mPGES-1). Rather, ascorbic acid dose-dependently (0.1-100 microM) produced a significant reduction in IL-1beta-mediated production of 8-iso-prostaglandin F2alpha (8-iso-PGF2alpha), a reliable indicator of free radical formation, suggesting that the effects of ascorbic acid on COX-2-mediated PGE2 biosynthesis may be the result of the maintenance of the neuronal redox status since COX activity is known to be enhanced by oxidative stress. Our results provide in vitro evidence that the neuroprotective effects of ascorbic acid may depend, at least in part, on its ability to reduce neuronal COX-2 activity and PGE2 synthesis, owing to its antioxidant properties. Further, these experiments suggest that a combination of aspirin with ascorbic acid constitutes a novel approach to render COX-2 more sensitive to inhibition by aspirin, allowing an anti-inflammatory therapy with lower doses of aspirin, thereby avoiding the side effects of the usually high dose aspirin treatment.} }