@misc{cogprints6217, volume = {46}, number = {5}, author = {Jean C. Doerr and Dr. Mark B. Kristal}, title = {Enhancement of Opioid-Mediated Analgesia by Ingestion of Amniotic Fluid: Onset Latency and Duration}, publisher = {Pergamon Press}, journal = {Physiology \& Behavior}, pages = {913--915}, year = {1989}, keywords = {POEF, analgesia, opioids, VSIA, rats, pain, parturition, tail-flick latency, amniotic fluid}, url = {http://cogprints.org/6217/}, abstract = {Ingestion of placenta and amniotic fluid has been shown to enhance opioid-mediated analgesia produced by morphine injection, footshock, vaginal/cervical stimulation, and during late pregnancy in rats. The present study was designed to determine how soon after ingestion the enhancement begins and how long it lasts. Tail-flick latencies in Long-Evans rats were determined before and during vaginal/cervical stimulation; analgesia was measured as the percent increase in tail-flick latency during vaginal stimulation. After determination of baseline, rats were intubated with 0.25 ml of either amniotic fluid or beef bouillon. We found that analgesia enhancement was detectable as early as 5 minutes after ingestion of amniotic fluid, and the effect lasted at least 30 minutes, but no longer than 40 minutes.} }