@misc{cogprints6220, volume = {31}, number = {2}, author = {Dr. Mark B. Kristal and Patricia Abbott and Alexis C. Thompson}, title = {Dose-Dependent Enhancement of Morphine-Induced Analgesia by Ingestion of Amniotic Fluid and Placenta}, publisher = {Pergamon Press}, journal = {Pharmacology Biochemistry \& Behavior}, pages = {351--356}, year = {1988}, keywords = {placentophagia, analgesia, opiates, POEF, morphine, maternal behavior, amniotic fluid, rats, opioids, tail-flick latency, parturition, pain}, url = {http://cogprints.org/6220/}, abstract = {Ingestion of amniotic fluid and placenta by rats has been shown to enhance opioid-mediated analgesia. The present studies were designed to examine the effect of several doses and volumes of placenta and amniotic fluid on tail-flick latency in rats treated with 3 mg/kg morphine. The optimal dose of amniotic fluid was found to be 0.25 ml, although 0.50 and 1.0 ml also produced significant enhancement. Doses of 0.125 and 2 ml of amniotic fluid were ineffective, as was a dose of 0.25 ml diluted to 2 ml with saline. The optimal dose of placenta was found to be 1 placenta, although the resulting enhancement was not significantly greater than that produced by 0.25, 0.50, 2.0 or 4.0 placentas. Doses smaller than 0.25 placenta or larger than 4.0 placentas were ineffective. The most effective doses of amniotic fluid and placenta correspond to the amounts delivered with each pup during parturition.} }