@misc{cogprints6252, volume = {38}, number = {6}, author = {Dr. Mark B. Kristal and Alexis C. Thompson and Patricia Abbott}, title = {Ingestion of Amniotic Fluid Enhances Opiate Analgesia in Rats}, publisher = {Pergamon Journals Ltd.}, journal = {Physiology \& Behavior}, pages = {809--815}, year = {1986}, keywords = {Amniotic fluid, Opiates, Pain, Tail-flick latency, Placenta, Analgesia, Placentophagia, Parturition, Afterbirth, Pregnancy, Maternal behavior, Morphine, POEF}, url = {http://cogprints.org/6252/}, abstract = {Placenta ingestion has recently been shown to enhance opiate-mediated analgesia produced by morphine injection, footshock, or vaginal/cervical stimulation. The enhancement of the effect of endogenous opiates (especially analgesia) may be one of the principal benefits to mammalian mothers of placentophagia at delivery. During labor and delivery, however, mothers also ingest amniotic fluid (AF) which, unlike placenta, becomes available during, or even before expulsion of the infant. The present experiments were undertaken to determine (a) whether AF ingestion, too, enhances analgesia; if so, (b) whether the effect requires ingestion of, or merely exposure to, AF; (c) whether the effect can be produced by AF delivered directly to the stomach by tube; and (d) whether the enhancement, if it exists, can be blocked by administering an opiate antagonist. Nulliparous Long-Evans rats were tested for analgesia using tail-flick latency. We found that (a) rats that ingested AF after receiving a morphine injection showed significantly more analgesia than did rats that ingested a control substance;' (b) AF ingestion, alone, did not produce analgesia; (c) ingestion of AF, rather than just smelling and seeing it, was necessary to produce analgesia enhancement; (d) AF produced enhancement when oropharyngeal factors were eliminated by delivering it through an orogastric tube; and (e) treatment of the rats with naltrexone blocked the enhancement of morphine-induced analgesia that results from AF ingestion.} }