Neuropsychological indicators of heteromodal cortex (dys)function relevant to conditioned blocking measures of attention in schizophrenia

Oades, R.D. and Bender, and Müller, and Sartory, (2001) Neuropsychological indicators of heteromodal cortex (dys)function relevant to conditioned blocking measures of attention in schizophrenia. [Journal (Paginated)]

Full text available as:

[img] PDF


Background. Learning a predictive relationship between two events can block learning about an added event (conditioned blocking, CB). Patients with nonparanoid schizophrenia can show reduced CB and learn about the similar consequences of the added event. What parts of the brain are involved in the functions required in learning the CB task and actually showing 'blocking' - a part of normal selective attention processes? As a first approximation, we ask if neuropsychological test performance sensitive to specific cortical regions is associated with these two functions. Methods. This study reports on the relationship of associative learning and CB measures of attention obtained with a visuospatial maze-like task to signs of heteromodal cortex function provided by performance on a battery of 10 neuropsychological tasks. These tasks were sensitive to frontal, parietal and temporal lobe function of the left and right hemisphere. Acquisition criteria for the task were achieved by 62 patients with schizophrenia and 62 matched controls but not by 39 other people with schizophrenia. Results. First right-hemisphere, visuo-spatial abilities were generally associated with faster task-learning (e.g. visual reproduction, immediate and delayed, picture-completion), and patients that could not learn the task were poorer on tests emphasising set-switching and problem-solving abilities associated with left frontal lobe function (e.g. trail-making, block-design). Second CB expression depended on Stroop- and Mooney-faces-task performance that are reported to require cingulate and parietal lobe function. Conclusions. As would be predicted right hemisphere function was implicated in performing a visuospatial learning task. The additional CB requirement incurred additional anterior cingulate and right parietal involvement. Functionally this probably reflected effortful attentional processes, and illustrates the problems of patients with schizophrenia in switching between automatic and controlled processing strategies. The results are astonishingly consistent with imaging studies implicating brain regions such as the cingulate and intra-parietal sulcus in attention (Mesulam, 1999).

Item Type:Journal (Paginated)
Keywords:attention, Schizophrenia, paranoid, nonparanoid, thought-disorder, disorganised, delusions, delusions of reference Frontal Cortex, Parietal Cortex, Temporal Cortex, Cingulate Cortex, Conditioned Blocking, Blocking, Lateralisation, Set, Switch, automatic attention, controlled attention, verbal-fluency, trail-making, Mooney-faces-closure, visual reproduction, logical memories, Stroop, block-design,
Subjects:Neuroscience > Neuropsychology
Neuroscience > Neuropsychiatry
Psychology > Psychobiology
ID Code:2015
Deposited By: OADES, Robert D.
Deposited On:11 Jan 2002
Last Modified:11 Mar 2011 08:54

References in Article

Select the SEEK icon to attempt to find the referenced article. If it does not appear to be in cogprints you will be forwarded to the paracite service. Poorly formated references will probably not work.

Aleman, A., Hijman, R., de Haan, E.H.F., & Kahn, R.S. (1999). Memory impairment in schizophrenia: a meta-analysis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 1358-1366.

Allen, D.N., Goldstein, G., & Aldarondo, F. (1999). Neurocognitive dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia and alcoholism. Neuropsychology, 13, 62-68.

American Psychiatric Association, (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), 4th ed., Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association.

Andreasen, N.C., & Olsen, S. (1982). Negative versus positive schizophrenia: definition and validation. Archives of General Psychiatry, 39, 789-794.

Arndt, S., Turvey, T., & Andreasen, N.C. (1999). Correlating and predicting psychiatric symptoms ratings: Spearman’s r versus Kendall’s tau correlation. Journal of psychiatric Research, 33, 97-104.

Barnes, T.R.E. (1989). A rating scale for the drug-induced akathisia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 672-676.

Bender, S., Müller, B.W., Oades, R.D., & Sartory, G. (2000). Conditioned blocking and schizophrenia: a replication and study of the role of symptoms, age, illness onset-age and illness duration. Schizophrenia Research, in press.

Benton, A.L., & Hamsher, K. (1989). Multilingual Aphasia Examination. Iowa City, IA: AJA Associates.

Brauns, H., Haun, D. and Steinmann, S., 1997. The construction of an internationally comparable classification by class. Erwerbsstatistische Besonderheiten am Beispiel von Labour Force Surveys der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Frankreichs, Großbritanniens und Ungarns., Mannheim Centre for European Social Research (MZES), Mannheim: Arbeitspapiere Arbeitsbereich 1/22.

Botvinick, M., Nystrom, L.E., Fissell, K., Carter, C.S., & Cohen, J.D. (1999). Conflict monitoring versus selection-for-action in anterior cingulate cortex. Nature, 402, 179-181.

Buchanan, R.W., Holstein, C., & Breier, A. (1994). The comparative efficacy and long-term effect of clozapine on neuropsychological test performance. Biological Psychiatry, 36, 717-726.

Cabeza, R., & Nyberg, L. (1997). Imaging cognition: an empirical review of PET studies with normal subjects. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 9, 1-26.

Callaway, E., & Naghdi, S. (1981). An information processing model of schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 38, 339-347.

Caza, P.A. (1984). Noradrenergic influences on blocking: interactions with development. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 21, 9-17.

Chase, T.N., Fedio, P, & Foster, N.L. (1984). Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale performance. Cortical localization by fluorodeoxyglucose F18 positron emission tomography. Archives of Neurology, 41, 1244-1247.

Corbetta, M., Shulman, G.L., Miezin, F.M., & Petersen, S.E. (1995). Superior parietal cortex activation during spatial attention shifts and visual feature conjunction. Science, 270, 802-805

Coull, J.T., Frith, C.D., Frackowiak, R.S.J., & Grasby, P.M. (1997). A fronto-parietal network for rapid visual information processing: a PET study of sustained attention and working memory. Neuropsychologia, 34, 1085-1095.

Crider, A., Blockel, L., & Solomon, P.R. (1986). A selective attention deficit in the rat following induced dopamine receptor supersensitivity. Behavioral Neuroscience, 100, 315-319.

Delaney, R.C., Rosen, A.J., Mattson, R.H., & Noelly, R.A. (1980). Memory function in focal epilepsy: a comparison of non-surgical, unilateral temporal lobe and frontal lobe samples. Cortex, 16, 103-117.

Dove, A., Pollmann, S., Schubert, T., Wiggins, C.J., & von Cramon, D.Y. (2000). Prefrontal cortex activation in task switching: an event-related fMRI study. Cognitive Brain Research, 9, 103-109.

Earnst, K.S., Taylor, S.F., Smet, I.C., Goldman, R.S., Tandon, R., Berent, S. (1999). The effects of typical antipsychotics, clozapine and risperidone on neuropsychological test performance in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 40, 255-256

Fink, G.R., Halligan, P.W., Marshall, J.C., Frith, C.D., Frackowiak, R.S.J., & Dolan, R.J. (1996). Where in the brain does visual attention select the forest and the trees? Nature, 382, 626-628.

Gray, J.A. (1998). Integrating schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 24, 249-266.

Gray, N.S., Pickering, A.D., Gray, J.A., Jones, S.H., Abrahams, S.H., & Hemsley, D.R. (1997). Kamin blocking is not disrupted by amphetamine in human subjects. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 11, 301-311.

Hair, J.F., Anderson, R.E., Tatham, R.L., & Black, W.C. (1992). Multivariate data analysis. (3rd Ed.) New York: Macmillan.

Harris, I.M., Egan, G.F., Sonkkila, C., Tochon-Danguy, H.J., Paxinos, G., & Watson, J.D.G. (2000). Selective right parietal lobe activation during mental rotation. Brain, 123, 65-73.

Hartje, W., & Poeck, K. (1997). Klinische Neuropsychologie. Stuttgart: Georg Thieme Verlag.

Heinrichs, R.W., & Zaksanis, K.K. (1998). Neurocognitive deficit in schizophrenia: a quantitative review of the evidence. Neuropsychology, 12, 426-445.

Hemsley, D.R. (1994). A cognitive model for schizophrenia and its possible neural basis. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 90 (supplement 384), 80-86.

Holland, P.C. (1999). Overshadowing and blocking as acquisition deficits: no recovery after extinction of overshadowing or blocking cues. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 52B, 307-333.

Iidaka, T., Sadato, N., Yamada, H., & Yonekura, Y. (2000). Functional asymmetry of human prefrontal cortex in verbal and non-verbal episodic memory as revealed by fMRI. Cognitive Brain Research, 9, 73-83.

Kamin, L.J. (1969). Predictability, surprise. Attention and conditioning. In R. Church & B. Campbell (Eds.), Punishment and aversive behavior (pp. 279-296). New York, NY: Appleton-Century-Crofts.

Kay, S.R., Opler, L.A., & Fizbein, A. (1992). The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Toronto: Manual. Multi-Health Systems.

Kim, Y-H., Gitelman, D.R.., Nobre, A.C., Parrish, T.B., LeBar, K.S., & Mesulam, M-M. (1999). The large scale neural network for spatial attention displays multifunctional overlap but differential asymmetry. NeuroImage, 9, 269-277.

Kleinschmidt, A., Büchel, C., Zeki, S., & Frackowiak, R.S.J. (1998). Human brain activity during spontaneously reversing perception of ambiguous figures. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 265, 2427-2433.

Kolb, B., & Whishaw, I.Q. (1996). Neuropsychologie. Heidelberg: Spektrum Akademischer Verlag.

Kumari, V., Cotter, P.A., Mulligan, O.F., Checkley, S.A., Gray, N.S., Hemsley, D.R., Thornton, J.C., Corr, P.J., Toone, B.K., & Gray, J.A. (1999). Effects of d-amphetamine and haloperidol on latent inhibition in healthy male volunteers. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 13, 398-405.

Lansdell, H. (1970). Relation of extent of temporal removals to closure and visuomotor factors. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 31, 491-498.

Levine, B., Stuss, D.T., & Milberg, W.P. (1997). Effects of aging on conditional associative learning: process analyses and comparison with focal frontal lesions. Neuropsychology, 11, 367-381.

Lezak. M.D. (1995). Neuropsychological Assessment. New York: Oxford University Press.

Liddle, P.F. & Morris, D.L. (1991). Schizophrenic syndromes and frontal lobe performance. British Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 340-345.

Mesulam, M-M. (1999). Spatial attention and neglect: parietal, frontal and cingulate contributions to the mental representation and attentional targeting of salient extrapersonal events. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society series B, 354, 1335-1346.

Michel, L., Danion, J-M., Grange, D., & Sandner, G. (1998). Cognitive skill learning and schizophrenia: implications for cognitive remediation. Neuropsychology, 12, 590-599.

Mooney, C.M., & Ferguson, G.A. (1951). A new closure test. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 5, 129-133.

Oades, R.D., Röpcke, B., & Schepker, R. (1996a). A test of conditioned blocking and its development in childhood and adolescence: relationship to personality and monoamine metabolism. Developmental Neuropsychology, 12, 207-230.

Oades, R.D., Zimmermann, B., & Eggers, C. (1996b). Conditioned blocking in patients with paranoid, non-paranoid psychosis or obsessive compulsive disorder: Association with symptoms, personality and monoamine metabolism. Journal of psychiatric Research, 30, 369-390.

Oades, R.D., Müller, B.W., Bender, S., & Sartory, G. (2000a). A conditioned blocking (CB) impairment in nonparanoid schizophrenia: onset-age and illness duration. Schizophrenia Research, 41, 292-293.

Oades, R.D., Rao, M.L., Bender, S., Sartory, G., & Müller, B.W. (2000b). Neuropsychological and conditioned blocking performance in patients with schizophrenia: assessment of the contribution of neuroleptic dose, serum levels and dopamine D2-receptor occupancy. Behavioural Pharmacology, 11, 317-330.

Oades, R.D., Rivet, J-M., Taghzouti, K., Kharouby, M., Simon, H. & Le Moal, M. (1987). Catecholamines and conditioned blocking: effects of ventral tegmental, septal and frontal 6-hydroxydopamine lesions in rats. Brain Research, 406, 136-146.

Oldfield, R.C. (1971). The assessment and analysis of handedness: the Edinburgh Inventory. Neuropsychologia, 9, 97-113.

Pardo, J.V., Pardo, P.J., Janer, K.W., & Raichle, M.E. (1990). The anterior cingulate mediates processing selection in the Stroop attentional conflict paradigm. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA), 87, 256-259.

Paulus, M.P., Perry, W., & Braff, D.L. (1999). The nonlinear, complex sequential organization of behavior in schizophrenic patients: neurocognitive strategies and clinical correlations. Biological Psychiatry, 46, 662-670.

Peralta, V. Cuesta, & M.J. (1999). Dimensional structure of psychotic symptoms: an item-level analysis of SAPS and SANS symptoms in psychotic disorders. Schizophrenia Research, 38, 13-26.

Perret, E. (1974). The left frontal lobe of man and the suppression of habitual responses in verbal categorical behaviour. Neuropsychologia, 12, 323-330.

Peterson, B.S., Skudlarski, P., Gatenby, J.C., Zhang, H., Anderson, A.W., & Gore, J.C. (1999). An fMRI study of Stroop word-color interference: evidence for cingulate subregions subserving multiple distributed attentional systems. Biological Psychiatry, 45, 1237-1258.

Raven, J.C. (1976). Raven-Matrizen-Test: Advanced Progressive Matrices. German language manual. H. Kratzmeier and R. Horn (Eds.). Stuttgart: Beltz-Verlag.

Reitan, R.M. (1958). The validity of the Trail Making Test as an indicator of organic brain damage. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 8, 271-276.

Rickert, E.J., Bennett, T.L., Lane, P., & French, J., (1978). Hippocampectomy and the attenuation of blocking. Behavioral Biology, 22, 147-160.

Saykin, A.J., Shtasel, D.L., Gur, R E., Kester, D.B., Mozley, L.H., Stafiniak, P. & Gur, R.C. (1994). Neuropsychological deficits in neuroleptic naive patients with first episode schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 124-131.

Simpson, G.M., & Angus, J.W.S. (1970). A rating scale for extrapyramidal side-effects. Acta Psychiatrica. Scandinavica, supplement 212, 11-19.

Spence, S.A., Liddle, P.F., Stefan, M.D., Hellewell, J.S.E., Sharma, T., Friston, K.J., Hirsch, S.R., Frith, C.D., Murray, R.M., Deakin, J.F.W., & Grasby, P.M. (2000). Functional anatomy of verbal fluency in people with schizophrenia and those at genetic risk: focal dysfunction and distributed disconnectivity reappraised. British Journal of Psychiatry, 176, 52-60.

Straube, E.R., & Oades, R.D. (1992). Schizophrenia: Empirical Research and Findings. San Diego: Academic Press.

Taylor, S.F., Kornblum, S., Lauber, E.J., Minoshima, S., Koeppe, R.A. (1997). Isolation of specific interference processing in the Stroop task. PET activation studies. NeuroImage, 6, 81-92.

Treisman, A.M. (1988). A feature-integrative theory of attention. Quarterly Journal of experimental Psychology, 40, 201-237.

Verdoux, H., Magnin, E., & Bourgeois, M. (1995). Neuroleptic effects on neuropsychological test performance in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 14, 133-139.

Verdoux, H., Liraud, F., Gonzales, B., Assens, F., Abalan, F., Beaussier, J-P., Gaussares, C., Etchegarry, B., Bourgeois, M.L., & van Os, J. (1999). The association of neuropsychological deficits to clinical symptoms in first-admission subjects with psychotic disorders. Schizophrenia Research, 37, 197-203.

Warrington, E. K., James, M., & Maciejewski, C. (1986). The WAIS as a lateralizing and localising diagnostic instrument. Neuropsychologia, 24, 223-239.

Wasserstein, J., Zappulla, R., & Rosen, J. (1987). In search of closure: Subjective contour illusions, gestalt completion tests and implications. Brain and Cognition, 6, 1-14.

Wechsler, D. (1981). Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-revised (WAIS-R). New York, NY: The Psychological Corporation.

Wechsler, D. (1987). The Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.


Repository Staff Only: item control page