Children’s Reporting of Peers’ Behaviour

Ingram, Mr Gordon P. D. (2009) Children’s Reporting of Peers’ Behaviour. [Thesis]

Full text available as:

PDF (Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Queen's University Belfast)


This thesis describes a mixed-methods investigation of young children’s everyday social communication, focusing on tattling—the reporting of a peer’s negative behaviour to an audience. There are links between tattling and the development of gossip, and thus with the evolution of cooperative norms in humans. Tattling is a daily activity for many children, but has been little studied, especially in preschool contexts. Quantitative sampling and participant observation are used to characterize behavioural reporting among 3- to 4-year-olds in 2 preschools in Belfast, Northern Ireland. Quantitative sampling shows that children in these populations are biased towards reporting negative actions by peers; that they are more likely to report actions of which they themselves are the victims; that they usually tell the truth; that their reports are rarely ignored by staff; and that there are relationships between frequency of tattling and measures of social dominance and relational aggression. Participant observation shows that tattling takes place in a complex social context; that children are generally aware of its effects; and that it is driven by a range of motivations, both self-oriented and group-oriented. Two story recall experiments are described, aimed at testing the hypothesis that negative bias in children’s reports arises from the greater salience of negative behaviour. The experiments do not support this hypothesis, further strengthening the idea that children are acting out of strategic considerations when they report peers’ transgressions. Behavioural reporting in preschool contexts is compared with a sample of transcripts of children’s discourse recorded in 1970s England and stored in the CHILDES database. Examples of tattling and gossip are also found in the eHRAF ethnographic database. The thesis concludes with an interactionist model of the development of tattling and gossip, in which third-party mediation helps to integrate the affective and normative components of children’s developing moral systems.

Item Type:Thesis
Keywords:Tattling; Gossip; Evolution of Cooperation; Social Communication; Language Development; Moral Psychology; Norms; Participant Observation; Mixed Methods; Behavioural Ecology; CHILDES; eHRAF; Developmental Systems; Interactionism
Subjects:Psychology > Developmental Psychology
Psychology > Evolutionary Psychology
ID Code:6448
Deposited By: Ingram, Mr Gordon P. D.
Deposited On:30 May 2009 15:39
Last Modified:11 Mar 2011 08:57

References in Article

Select the SEEK icon to attempt to find the referenced article. If it does not appear to be in cogprints you will be forwarded to the paracite service. Poorly formated references will probably not work.

Abrahams, R. D. (1970). A performance-centred approach to gossip. Man (n.s.), 5, 290–301.

Acheson, J. M. (1988). The lobster gangs of Maine. Lebanon, NH: University Press of New England.

Adams, H. E., Wright, L. W., Jr, & Lohr, B. A. (1996). Is homophobia associated with homosexual arousal? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 105, 440–445.

Alexander, R. D. (1987). The biology of moral systems. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.

Allport, G. W., & Postman, L. (1947). The psychology of rumor. New York: Russell & Russell.

Amyot, J. (1976). Village Ayutthaya: Social and economic conditions of a rural population in central Thailand. Bangkok, Thailand: Social Science Research Institute, Chulalongkorn University.

Andrews, P. W., Gangestad, S. W., & Matthews, D. (2002). Adaptationism—How to carry out an exaptationist program. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 25, 489–553.

Archer, J., & Coyne, S. M. (2005). An integrated review of indirect, relational, and social aggression. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 9, 212–230.

Aureli, F. (1997). Post-conflict anxiety in nonhuman primates: The mediating role of emotion in conflict resolution. Aggressive Behavior, 23, 315–328.

Axelrod, R., & Hamilton, W. D. (1981). The evolution of cooperation. Science, 211, 1390–1396.

Bamberg, M. (2004). Form and functions of 'slut bashing' in male identity constructions in 15-year-olds: 'I know it may sound mean to say this, but we couldn't really care less about her anyway.' Human Development, 47, 331–353.

Barkow, J. H. (1992). Beneath new culture is old psychology: Gossip and social stratification. In J. H. Barkow, L. Cosmides, & J. Tooby (Eds.), The adapted mind: Evolutionary psychology and the generation of culture (pp. 627–637). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

Barner-Barry, C. (1988). The structure of politically relevant behaviours in pre-school groups. In M. R. A. Chance (Ed.), Social fabrics of the mind (pp. 261–276). Hove, England: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Barnes, E. (1904). Student honor: A study in cheating. International Journal of Ethics, 14, 481–488.

Barnett, W. K. (1970). An ethnographic description of Sanlei Ts'un, Taiwan, with emphasis on women's roles: Overcoming research problems caused by the presence of a great tradition. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Michigan State University.

Bartsch, K., & Wellman, H. M. (1995). Children talk about the mind. New York: Oxford University Press.

Bates, E. L., Camaioni, L., & Volterra, V. (1975). The acquisition of performatives prior to speech. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 21, 205–226.

Baumeister, R. F., Dale, K., & Sommer, K. L. (1998). Freudian defense mechanisms and empirical findings in modern social psychology: Reaction formation, projection, displacement, undoing, isolation, sublimation, and denial. Journal of Personality, 66, 1081–1124.

Baumeister, R. F., Zhang, L., & Vohs, K. D. (2004). Gossip as cultural learning. Review of General Psychology, 8, 111–121.

Ben-Ze'ev, A. (1994). The vindication of gossip. In R. F. Goodman & A. Ben-Ze'ev (Eds.), Good gossip (pp. 11–24). Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.

Bergmann, J. R. (1993). Discreet indiscretions: The social organization of gossip (J. J. Bednarz, Trans.). New York: Aldine de Gruyter. (Original work published 1987)

Bjorklund, D. F., Cormier, C. A., & Rosenberg, J. S. (2005). The evolution of theory of mind: Big brains, social complexity, and inhibition. In W. Schneider, R. Schumann-Hengsteler, & B. Sodian (Eds.), Young children's cognitive development: Interrelationships among executive functioning, working memory, verbal ability, and theory of mind (pp. 147–174). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Bjorklund, D. F., & Pellegrini, A. D. (2000). Child development and evolutionary psychology. Child Development, 71, 1687–1708.

Bjorklund, D. F., & Pellegrini, A. D. (2002). The origins of human nature: Evolutionary developmental psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Bleek, W. (1976). Witchcraft, gossip and death: A social drama. Man (n.s.), 11, 526–541.

Bloom, P. (2004). Postscript to the special issue on gossip. Review of General Psychology, 8, 138–140.

Bloom, P., & German, T. P. (2000). Two reasons to abandon the false belief task as a test of theory of mind. Cognition, 77, 25–31.

Boehm, C. (1987). Blood revenge: The enactment and management of conflict in Montenegro and other tribal societies (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Boehm, C. (1999). Hierarchy in the forest: The evolution of egalitarian behavior. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Boehm, C. (2000). Conflict and the evolution of social control. In L. D. Katz (Ed.), Evolutionary origins of morality: Cross-disciplinary perspectives (pp. 79–148). Thorverton, England: Imprint Academic.

Bogdan, R. J. (2003). Minding minds: Evolving a reflexive mind by interpreting others. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Bowers, F. E., McGinnis, J. C., Ervin, R. A., & Friman, P. C. (1999). Merging research and practice: The example of positive peer reporting applied to social rejection. Education & Treatment of Children, 22, 218–226.

Boyd, R., Gintis, H., Bowles, S., & Richerson, P. J. (2003). The evolution of altruistic punishment. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA), 100, 3531–3535.

Brakefield, P. M. (2006). Evo-devo and constraints on selection. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 21, 362–368.

Brannen, J. (Ed.). (1992). Mixing methods: Qualitative and quantitative research. Aldershot, England: Avebury.

Brewer, G. A., & Selden, S. C. (1998). Whistle blowers in the federal civil service: New evidence of the public service ethic. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 8, 413–439.

Brison, K. J. (1992). Just talk: Gossip, meetings, and power in a Papua New Guinea village. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Brown, D. E. (1991). Human universals. Boston: McGraw-Hill.

Bruner, J. S. (1975). The ontogenesis of speech acts. Journal of Child Language, 3, 1–19.

Bruner, J. S. (1983). Child's talk: Learning to use language. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

Buechler, H. C., & Buechler, J. (1971). The Bolivian Aymara. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Buchner, A., Bell, R., Mehl, B., & Musch, J. (2009). No enhanced recognition memory, but better source memory for faces of cheaters. Evolution and Human Behavior, 30, 212–224.

Burger, L. K., & Miller, P. J. (1999). Early talk about the past revisited: Affect in working-class and middle-class children's co-narrations. Journal of Child Language, 26, 133–162.

Butovskaya, M. L., Boyko, E. Y., Selverova, N. B., & Ermakova, I. V. (2005). The hormonal basis of reconciliation in humans. Journal of Physiological Anthropology and Applied Human Science, 24, 333–337.

Butovskaya, M. L., & Kozintsev, A. (1999). Aggression, friendship, and reconciliation in Russian primary schoolchildren. Aggressive Behavior, 25, 125–139.

Buzzelli, C. A. (1997). Origins, differences, and the origins of differences in moral development: Parent–child discourse as moral activity. Developmental Review, 17, 101–109.

Cairns, R. B., Cairns, B. D., Neckerman, H. J., Ferguson, L. L., & Gariépy, J. (1989). Growth and aggression: 1. Childhood to early adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 25, 320–330.

Cameron, D. (1997). Performing gender identity: Young men’s talk and the construction of heterosexual masculinity. In S. Johnson & U. Hanna (Eds.), Language and masculinity (pp. 47–64). Oxford, England: Blackwell.

Campbell, J. K. (1964). Honour, family, and patronage: A study of institutions and moral values in a Greek mountain community. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.

Carlson, S. M., & Moses, L. J. (2001). Individual differences in inhibitory control and children's theory of mind. Child Development, 72, 1032–1053.

Carlson, S. M., Moses, L. J., & Hix, H. R. (1998). The role of inhibitory processes in young children's difficulties with deception and false belief. Child Development, 69, 672–691.

Caughey, J. L. (1977). Fa’a’nakkar: Cultural values in a Micronesian society. Philadelphia: Department of Anthropology, University of Pennsylvania.

Chafe, W. (1994). Discourse, consciousness, and time: The flow and displacement of conscious experience in speaking and writing. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Chance, M. R. A. (1967). Attention structure as the basis of primate rank orders. Man (n.s.), 2, 503–518.

Chandler, M., Fritz, A. S., & Hala, S. (1989). Small-scale deceit: Deception as a marker of two-, three-, and four-year-olds' early theories of mind. Child Development, 60, 1263–1277.

Cheng, P. W., & Holyoak, K. J. (1985). Pragmatic reasoning schemas. Cognitive Psychology, 17, 391–416.

Chun, K. (1984). Reciprocity and Korean society: An ethnography of Hasami. Seoul, Korea: Seoul National University Press.

Cillessen, A. H. N., & Mayeux, L. (2004). From censure to reinforcement: Developmental changes in the association between aggression and social status. Child Development, 75, 147–163.

Clark, B. L. (1996). Regendering the school story: Sassy sissies and tattling tomboys. New York: Routledge.

Clemmer, R. O. (1995). Roads in the sky: The Hopi Indians in a century of change. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Colson, E. (1953). The Makah Indians. Manchester, England: Manchester University Press.

Cook, T. D., & Reichardt, C. S. (Eds.). (1979). Qualitative and quantitative methods in evaluation research. Beverly Hills, CA: SAGE.

Coolican, H. (2004). Research methods and statistics in psychology (4th ed.). London: Hodder & Stoughton.

Cooney, M., Hutchison, L., & Costigan, V. (1996). From hitting and tattling to communication and negotiation: The young child's stages of socialization. Early Childhood Education Journal, 24, 23–27.

Corsaro, W. A. (1997). The sociology of childhood. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.

Corsaro, W. A. (2003). We're friends, right? Inside kids' cultures. Washington, DC: Joseph Henry Press.

Cosmides, L. (1989). The logic of social exchange: Has natural selection shaped how humans reason? Studies with the Wason selection task. Cognition, 31, 187–276.

Cosmides, L., & Tooby, J. (1992). Cognitive adaptations for social exchange. In J. H. Barkow, L. Cosmides, & J. Tooby (Eds.), The adapted mind: Evolutionary psychology and the generation of culture (pp. 163–228). New York: Oxford University Press.

Cosmides, L., Tooby, J., & Barkow, J. H. (1992). Introduction: Evolutionary psychology and conceptual integration. In J. H. Barkow, L. Cosmides, & J. Tooby (Eds.), The adapted mind: Evolutionary psychology and the generation of culture (pp. 3–15). New York: Oxford University Press.

Cox, B. A. (1968). Law and conflict management among the Hopi. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of California, Berkeley.

Cox, B. A. (1970). What is Hopi gossip about? Information management and Hopi factions. Man (n.s.), 5, 88–98.

Crick, N. R., Werner, N. E., Casas, J. F., O’Brien, K. M., Nelson, D. A., & Grotpeter, J. K. (1999). Childhood aggression and gender: A new look at an old problem. Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, 45, 75–141.

Crick, N. R., Casas, J. F., & Mosher, M. (1997). Relational and overt aggression in preschool. Developmental Psychology, 33, 579–588.

Crick, N. R., & Grotpeter, J. K. (1995). Relational aggression, gender, and social-psychological adjustment. Child Development, 66, 710–722.

Crystal, D. (1997). The Cambridge encyclopedia of language (2nd ed.). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Damon, W. (1977). The social world of the child. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Darley, J. M., & Shultz, T. R. (1990). Moral rules: Their content and acquisition. Annual Review of Psychology, 41, 525–556.

Davis, H., & McLeod, S. L. (2003). Why humans value sensational news: An evolutionary perspective. Evolution and Human Behavior, 24, 208–216.

Dawkins, R., & Krebs, J. R. (1978). Animal signals: Information or manipulation? In J. R. Krebs & N. B. Davies (Eds.), Behavioural ecology: An evolutionary approach (pp. 282–309). Oxford, England: Blackwell Scientific.

De Backer, Charlotte J. S., Nelissen, M., Vyncke, P., Braeckman, J., & McAndrew, F. T. (2007). Celebrities: From teachers to friends—A test of two hypotheses on the adaptiveness of celebrity gossip. Human Nature, 18, 334–354.

De Ganay, S. (2000). Dogon mottoes (S. L. Granka, Trans.) [Computer file]. New Haven, CT: HRAF. (Original work published 1941)

De Sousa, R. (1994). In praise of gossip: Indiscretion as a saintly virtue. In R. F. Goodman & A. Ben-Ze'ev (Eds.), Good gossip (pp. 25–33). Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.

De Waal, Frans B. M. (2000). Primates—A natural heritage of conflict resolution. Science, 289, 586–590.

De Waal, Frans B. M., & Roosmalen, A. (1979). Reconciliation and consolation among chimpanzees. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 5, 55–66.

DeMasters, R. H., & King, E. S. (1994). Conflict resolution: Teaching social skills in a kindergarten classroom. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED373905)

Den Bak, I. M., & Ross, H. S. (1996). "I'm telling!" The content, context, and consequences of children's tattling on their siblings. Social Development, 5, 292–309.

Ducey, P. R. (1956). Cultural continuity and population change on the island of Skye. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Columbia University.

Dunbar, R. I. M. (1993). Co-evolution of neocortex size, group size and language in humans. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 16, 681–735.

Dunbar, R. I. M. (1998). The social brain hypothesis. Evolutionary Anthropology, 6, 178–190.

Dunbar, R. I. M. (1999). Culture, honesty and the freerider problem. In R. I. M. Dunbar, C. Knight, & C. Power (Eds.), The evolution of culture: An interdisciplinary view (pp. 194–213). Edinburgh, Scotland: Edinburgh University Press.

Dunbar, R. I. M. (2004a). Gossip in evolutionary perspective. Review of General Psychology, 8, 100–110.

Dunbar, R. I. M. (2004b). Grooming, gossip and the evolution of language (2nd ed.). London: Faber and Faber.

Dunbar, R. I. M., Marriott, A., & Duncan, N. D. C. (1997). Human conversational behavior. Human Nature, 8, 231–246.

Dunn, J. (1988). The beginnings of social understanding. Oxford, England: Basil Blackwell.

Dunn, J. (2006). Moral development in early childhood and social interaction in the family. In M. Killen & J. G. Smetana (Eds.), Handbook of moral development (pp. 331–350). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Dunn, J., & Munn, P. (1987). Development of justification in disputes with mother and sibling. Developmental Psychology, 23, 791–798.

Eder, D., & Enke, J. L. (1991). The structure of gossip: Opportunities and constraints on collective expression among adolescents. American Sociological Review, 56, 494–508.

Eggan, D. (1943). The general problem of Hopi adjustment. American Anthropologist, 45, 357–373.

Einarsdóttir, J. (2007). Children's voices on the transition from preschool to primary school. In A. Dunlop & H. Fabian (Eds.), Informing transitions in the early years: Research, policy and practice (pp. 74–91). Maidenhead, England: Open University Press.

Ellickson, R. C. (1991). Order without law: How neighbors settle disputes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Ember, M., Ember, C. R., & Low, B. S. (2007). Comparing explanations of polygyny. Cross-Cultural Research, 41, 428.

Emler, N. (1990). A social psychology of reputation. European Review of Social Psychology, 1, 171–193.

Emler, N. (1994). Gossip, reputation, and social adaptation. In R. F. Goodman & A. Ben-Ze'ev (Eds.), Good gossip (pp. 117–138). Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.

Engel, S., & Li, A. (2004). Narratives, gossip, and shared experience: How and what young children know about the lives of others. In J. M. Lucariello, J. A. Hudson, R. Fivush, & P. J. Bauer (Eds.), The development of the mediated mind (pp. 151–174). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Enquist, M., & Leimar, O. (1993). The evolution of cooperation in mobile organisms. Animal Behaviour, 45, 747–757.

Epstein, A. L. (1969). Gossip, norms and social network. In J. C. Mitchell (Ed.), Social networks in urban situations: Analyses of personal relationships in Central African towns (pp. 117–127). Manchester, England: Manchester University Press.

Faris, J. C. (1966). The dynamics of verbal exchange: A Newfoundland example. Anthropologica (n.s.), 8, 235–248.

Fehr, E., Bernhard, H., & Rockenbach, B. (2008). Egalitarianism in young children. Nature, 454, 1079–1083.

Fehr, E., & Fischbacher, U. (2004a). Social norms and human cooperation. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 8, 185–190.

Fehr, E., & Fischbacher, U. (2004b). Third-party punishment and social norms. Evolution and Human Behavior, 25, 63–87.

Fessler, D. M. T., & Haley, K. J. (2003). The strategy of affect: Emotions in human cooperation. In P. Hammerstein (Ed.), Genetic and cultural evolution of cooperation (pp. 7–36). Cambridge: MIT Press.

Festinger, L. (1954). A theory of social comparison processes. Human Relations, 7, 117.

Fetterman, D. M. (1989). Ethnography: Step by step. Newbury Park, CA: SAGE.

Fine, G. A. (1977). Social components of children's gossip. Journal of Communication, 27, 181–185.

Fine, G. A. (1986). The social organization of adolescent gossip: The rhetoric of moral evaluation. In J. Cook-Gumperz, W. A. Corsaro, & J. Streeck (Eds.), Children's worlds and children's language (pp. 405–423). Berlin, Germany: Mouton de Gruyter.

Fine, G. A. (1987). With the boys: Little league baseball and preadolescent culture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Fine, G. A. (1988). Knowing children: Participant observation with minors. Newbury Park, CA: SAGE.

Fine, G. A. (1994). Ten lies of ethnography: Moral dilemmas of field research. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 22, 267–294.

Fine, G. A., & Elsbach, K. D. (2000). Ethnography and experiment in social psychological theory building: Tactics for integrating qualitative field data with quantitative lab data. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 36, 51–76.

Finkelstein, N. W., & Haskins, R. (1983). Kindergarten children prefer same-color peers. Child Development, 54, 502–508.

Firth, R. (1957). We, the Tikopia: A sociological study of kinship in primitive Polynesia (2nd ed.). London: Allen & Unwin.

Fitch, W. T. (2005). The evolution of language: A comparative review. Biology and Philosophy, 20, 193–203.

Fivush, R. (1993). Emotional content of parent-child conversations about the past. In C. A. Nelson (Ed.), Memory and affect in development (pp. 39–77). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Fivush, R., Haden, C., & Adam, S. (1995). Structure and coherence of preschoolers′ personal narratives over time: Implications for childhood amnesia. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 60, 32–56.

Flavell, J. H. (1999). Cognitive development: Children's knowledge about the mind. Annual Review of Psychology, 50, 21–45.

Foster, E. K. (2004). Research on gossip: Taxonomy, methods, and future directions. Review of General Psychology, 8, 78–99.

Fox, K. (2005). Watching the English: The hidden rules of English behaviour. London: Hodder & Stoughton.

Frankenberg, R. (1957). Village on the border: A social study of religion, politics and football in a North Wales community. London: Cohen & West.

Fried, J. (1951). Ideal norms and social control in Tarahumara society. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Friman, P. C., Woods, D. W., Freeman, K. A., Gilman, R., Short, M., McGrath, A. M., et al. (2004). Relationships between tattling, likeability, and social classification: A preliminary investigation of adolescents in residential care. Behavior Modification, 28, 331–348.

Galen, B. R., & Underwood, M. K. (1997). A developmental investigation of social aggression among children. Developmental Psychology, 33, 589–600

Gallin, B. (1966). Hsin Hsing, Taiwan: A Chinese village in change. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Gaskins, S., Haight, W., & Lancy, D. F. (2007). The cultural construction of play. In A. Göncü & S. Gaskins (Eds.), Play and development: Evolutionary, sociocultural, and functional perspectives (pp. 179–202). New York: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Gilbert, P. (2003). Evolution, social roles, and the differences in shame and guilt. Social Research, 70, 1205–1230.

Gilmore, D. D. (1987). Aggression and community: Paradoxes of Andalusian culture. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Gladwin, T., & Sarason, S. B. (1953). Truk: Man in paradise. New York: Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research.

Gluckman, M. (1963). Gossip and scandal. Current Anthropology, 4, 307–316.

Gluckman, M. (1968). Psychological, sociological and anthropological explanations of witchcraft and gossip: A clarification. Man (n.s.), 3, 20–34.

Göncü, A., Jain, J., & Tuermer, U. (2007). Children's play as cultural interpretation. In A. Göncü & S. Gaskins (Eds.), Play and development: Evolutionary, sociocultural, and functional perspectives (pp. 155–178). New York: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Goodman, R. F., & Ben-Ze'ev, A. (Eds.). (1994). Good gossip. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.

Goodwin, G. (1942). The social organization of the Western Apache. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Goodwin, M. H. (1990). He-said-she-said: Talk as social organization among black children. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Goodwin, M. H. (2005). The hidden life of girls: Games of stance, status and exclusion. Oxford, England: Blackwell.

Gould, S. J., & Vrba, E. S. (1982). Exaptation—A missing term in the science of form. Paleobiology, 8, 4–15.

Greenspan, S. I., & Shanker, S. G. (2004). The first idea: How symbols, language, and intelligence evolved from our primate ancestors to modern humans. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press.

Grice, H. P. (1989). Logic and conversation. In Studies in the way of words (pp. 22–40). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Haidt, J. (2001). The emotional dog and its rational tail: A social intuitionist approach to moral judgment. Psychological Review, 108, 814–834.

Haidt, J., Koller, S. H., & Dias, M. G. (1993). Affect, culture, and morality, or is it wrong to eat your dog? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 613–628.

Hala, S., Chandler, M., & Fritz, A. S. (1991). Fledgling theories of mind: Deception as a marker of three-year-olds’ understanding of false belief. Child Development, 62, 83–97.

Hala, S., & Russell, J. (2001). Executive control within strategic deception: A window on early cognitive development? Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 80, 112–141.

Hamilton, W. D. (1964). The genetical evolution of social behaviour. 1. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 7, 1–16.

Hammerseng, K. M. (1995). Telling isn't tattling. Seattle, WA: Parenting Press.

Hammersley, M. (Ed.). (1990). Classroom ethnography: Empirical and methodological essays. Milton Keynes, England: Open University Press.

Hammersley, M. (1992). Deconstructing the qualitative-quantitative divide. In J. Brannen (Ed.), Mixing methods: Qualitative and quantitative research (pp. 39–55). Aldershot, England: Avebury.

Hammersley, M., & Atkinson, P. (2007). Ethnography: Principles in practice (3rd ed.). London: Routledge.

Handelman, D. (1973). Gossip in encounters: The transmission of information in a bounded social setting. Man (n.s.), 8, 210–227.

Hannerz, U. (1967). Gossip, networks and culture in a Black American ghetto. Ethnos, 32, 35–60.

Harding, C. G., & Golinkoff, R. M. (1979). The origins of intentional vocalizations in prelinguistic infants. Child Development, 50, 33–40.

Harris, P. L. (2000). The work of the imagination. Oxford, England: Blackwell.

Harris, P. L., & Núñez, M. (1996). Understanding of permission rules by preschool children. Child Development, 67, 1572–1591.

Harris, P. L., Núñez, M., & Brett, C. (2001). Let's swap: Early understanding of social exchange by British and Nepali children. Memory and Cognition, 29, 757–764.

Haviland, J. B. (1977a). Gossip as competition in Zinacantan. Journal of Communication, 27, 186–191.

Haviland, J. B. (1977b). Gossip, reputation, and knowledge in Zinacantan. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Hawley, P. H. (1999). The ontogenesis of social dominance: A strategy-based evolutionary perspective. Developmental Review, 19, 97–132.

Helwig, C. C., & Turiel, E. (2002). Children's social and moral reasoning. In P. K. Smith & C. H. Hart (Eds.), Blackwell handbook of childhood social development (pp. 475–490). Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Henrich, J., & Gil-White, F. J. (2001). The evolution of prestige: Freely conferred deference as a mechanism for enhancing the benefits of cultural transmission. Evolution and Human Behavior, 22, 165–196.

Hernández Blasi, C., & Bjorklund, D. F. (2003). Evolutionary developmental psychology: A new tool for better understanding human ontogeny. Human Development, 46, 259–281.

Herskovits, M. J. (1975). Life in a Haitian valley. New York: Octagon.

Herskovits, M. J., & Herskovits, F. S. (1964). Trinidad village. New York: Octagon.

Hess, N. H., & Hagen, E. H. (2006). Psychological adaptations for assessing gossip veracity. Human Nature, 17, 337–354.

Hess, N. H., & Hagen, E. H. (2006). Sex differences in indirect aggression: Psychological evidence from young adults. Evolution and Human Behavior, 27, 231–245.

Hewitt, M. B. (n.d.). To tell or not to tell: The dynamics of ‘tattling.’ Retrieved May 4, 2009, from

Hill, V., & Pillow, B. H. (2006). Children's understanding of reputations. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 167, 137–157.

Hirschfeld, L. A. (2002). Why don't anthropologists like children? American Anthropologist, 104, 611–627.

Hockett, C. F. (1960). The origin of speech. Scientific American, 203, 88–96.

Hollis, M. (1980). Meaning and method: Some recent work in the philosophy of the social sciences. Philosophy, 55, 239–248.

Horowitz, L. (2005). Conflict resolution and development of communication competence in preschool boys with language impairment. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.

Horowitz, L., Jansson, L., Ljungberg, T., & Hedenbro, M. (2005). Behavioural patterns of conflict resolution strategies in preschool boys with language impairment in comparison with boys with typical language development. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 40, 431–454.

Howe, J. (1986). The Kuna gathering: Contemporary village politics in Panama. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Howes, C., & Wu, F. (1990). Peer interactions and friendships in an ethnically diverse school setting. Child Development, 61, 537–541.

Hudson, J., & Nelson, K. (1983). Effects of script structure on children's story recall. Developmental Psychology, 19, 625–635.

Hudson, J., & Shapiro, L. R. (1991). From knowing to telling: The development of children’s scripts, stories, and personal narratives. In A. McCabe & C. Peterson (Eds.), Developing narrative structure (pp. 89–136). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Hunt, M. E. V. (1962). The dynamics of the domestic group in two Tzeltal villages: A contrastive comparison. Chicago: University of Chicago Library.

Hurlock, E. B., & McDonald, L. C. (1934). Undesirable behavior traits in junior high school students. Child Development, 5, 278–290.

Hutchinson, H. W. (1957). Village and plantation life in northeastern Brazil. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Ingram, G. P. D., & Bering, J. M. (in press). Children’s tattling: The reporting of everyday norm violations in preschool settings. Child Development.

Ingram, G. P. D., Piazza, J. R., & Bering, J. M. (2009). The adaptive problem of absent third-party punishment. In H. Høgh-Olesen, P. Bertelsen, & J. Tønnesvang (Eds.), Human characteristics: Evolutionary perspectives on human mind and kind (pp. 205–229). Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England: Cambridge Scholars.

Isaacs, S. (1933). Social development in young children. London: George Routledge.

Johnson, R. B., & Onwuegbuzie, A. J. (2004). Mixed methods research: A research paradigm whose time has come. Educational Researcher, 33, 14.

Jones, A., & Glenn, S. M. (1991). Gender differences in pretend play in a primary school group. Early Child Development and Care, 77, 127–135.

Kaplan, H., & Gurven, M. (2005). The natural history of human food sharing and cooperation: A review and a new multi-individual approach to the negotiation of norms. In H. Gintis, S. Bowles, R. Boyd, & E. Fehr (Eds.), Moral sentiments and material interests: The foundations of cooperation in economic life (pp. 75–113). Cambridge: MIT Press.

Kappeler, P. M., & Van Schaik, C. P. (1992). Methodological and evolutionary aspects of reconciliation among primates. Ethology, 92, 51–69.

Katriel, T. (1991). Communal webs: Communication and culture in contemporary Israel. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Kemp, J. (1992). Hua Kok: Social organization in north-central Thailand. Canterbury, England: University of Kent at Canterbury Centre for Social Anthropology and Computing and Centre for South-East Asian Studies.

Kennedy, J. G. (1978). Tarahumara of the Sierra Madre: Beer, ecology, and social organization. Arlington Heights, IL: AHM.

Killen, M., & Turiel, E. (1991). Conflict resolution in preschool social interactions. Early Education and Development, 2, 240–255.

Kluckhohn, C. (1974). The Navaho (Rev. ed.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Kniffin, K. M., & Wilson, D. S. (2005). Utilities of gossip across organizational levels: Multilevel selection, free-riders, and teams. Human Nature, 16, 278–292.

Kohlberg, L. (1976). Moral stages and moralization: The cognitive-developmental approach. In T. Lickona (Ed.), Moral development and behavior: Theory, research, and social issues (pp. 31–53). New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Kohlberg, L. (1981). The philosophy of moral development: Moral stages and the idea of justice. London: Harper & Row.

Krauss, R. M., & Glucksberg, S. (1969). The development of communication: Competence as a function of age. Child Development, 40, 255–266.

Krebs, D. L. (2005). An evolutionary reconceptualization of Kohlberg's model of moral development. In R. L. Burgess & K. MacDonald (Eds.), Evolutionary perspectives on human development (2nd ed., pp. 243–274). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

Krebs, D. L., & Denton, K. (1997). Social illusions and self-deception: The evolution of biases in person perception. In J. A. Simpson & D. T. Kenrick (Eds.), Evolutionary social psychology (pp. 21–48). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Kuper, A. (1996). Anthropology and anthropologists: The modern British school (3rd ed.). London: Routledge.

Kuttler, A. F., Parker, J. G., & La Greca, A. M. (2002). Developmental and gender differences in preadolescents’ judgments of the veracity of gossip. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 48, 105–132.

La Freniere, P., & Charlesworth, W. R. (1983). Dominance, attention, and affiliation in a preschool group: A nine-month longitudinal study. Ethology and Sociobiology, 4, 55–67.

Lagerspetz, K. M., Björkqvist, K., & Peltonen, T. (1988). Is indirect aggression typical of females? Gender differences in aggressiveness in 11-to 12-year-old children. Aggressive Behavior, 14, 403–414.

Leavens, D. A., Russell, J. L., & Hopkins, W. D. (2005). Intentionality as measured in the persistence and elaboration of communication by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Child Development, 76, 291–306.

Lee, K., & Talwar, V. (2008). Children and lying: A century of scientific research. Oxford, England: Blackwell.

Lewis, M., Stanger, C., & Sullivan, M. W. (1989). Deception in 3-year-olds. Developmental Psychology, 25, 439–443.

Lickliter, R., & Honeycutt, H. (2003). Developmental dynamics: Toward a biologically plausible evolutionary psychology. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 819–835.

Ljungberg, T., Horowitz, L., Jansson, L., Westlund, K., & Clarke, C. (2005). Communicative factors, conflict progression, and use of reconciliatory strategies in pre-school boys: A series of random events or a sequential process? Aggressive Behavior, 31, 303–323.

Lorenz, K. (1966). On aggression (M. Latzke, Trans.). London: Methuen. (Original work published 1963)

MacNaughton, G. (2000). Rethinking gender in early childhood education. St Leonard’s, Australia: Allen & Unwin.

MacWhinney, B. (2000). The CHILDES project: Tools for analyzing talk. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

MacWhinney, B., & Snow, C. (1985). The Child Language Data Exchange System. Journal of Child Language, 12, 271–295.

Mahony, F. J. (1969). A Trukese theory of medicine. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Stanford University.

Mayr, E. (1993). Proximate and ultimate causations. Biology and Philosophy, 8, 93–94.

McAndrew, F. T., Bell, E. K., & Garcia, C. M. (2007). Who do we tell and whom do we tell on? Gossip as a strategy for status enhancement. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 37, 1562–1577.

McAndrew, F. T., & Milenkovic, M. A. (2002). Of tabloids and family secrets: The evolutionary psychology of gossip. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32, 1064–1082.

McConnell, G. (1963). Behavior that annoys teachers. The Elementary School Journal, 63, 448–452.

McEvoy, M. A., Estrem, T. L., Rodriguez, M. C., & Olson, M. L. (2003). Assessing relational and physical aggression among preschool children: Intermethod agreement. Topics for Early Childhood Special Education, 23, 51–61.

McFarlane, W. G. (1978). Gossip and social relationships in a Northern Irish village. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Queen's University Belfast.

McFee, M. (1972). Modern Blackfeet: Montanans on a reservation. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

McGrew, W. C. (1972). An ethological study of children's behaviour. New York: Academic Press.

Mealey, L., Daood, C., & Krage, M. (1996). Enhanced memory for faces of cheaters. Ethology and Sociobiology, 17, 119–128.

Mehl, B., & Buchner, A. (2008). No enhanced memory for faces of cheaters. Evolution and Human Behavior, 29, 35–41.

Mesoudi, A., Whiten, A., & Dunbar, R. I. M. (2006). A bias for social information in human cultural transmission. British Journal of Psychology, 97, 405–423.

Mettetal, G. (1983). Fantasy, gossip, and self-disclosure: Children's conversations with friends. Communication Yearbook, 7, 717–735.

Milinski, M., Semmann, D., & Krambeck, H. (2002). Donors to charity gain in both indirect reciprocity and political reputation. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 269, 881–883.

Miller, G. F. (2002). How did language evolve? In H. Swain (Ed.), Big questions in science (pp. 79–90). London: Jonathan Cape.

Miller, P. J., Cho, G. E., & Bracey, J. R. (2005). Working-class children's experience through the prism of personal storytelling. Human Development, 48, 115–135.

Miller, P. J., & Sperry, L. L. (1988). Early talk about the past: The origins of conversational stories of personal experience. Journal of Child Language, 15, 293–315.

Mintz, J. R. (1997). Carnival song and society: Gossip, sexuality, and creativity in Andalusia. Oxford: Berg.

Morrison, J. Q., & Jones, K. M. (2007). The effects of positive peer reporting as a class-wide positive behavior support. Journal of Behavioral Education, 16, 111–124.

Nagata, S. (1970). Modern transformations of Moenkopi pueblo. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Naroll, R. (1967). The proposed HRAF probability sample file. Behavior Science Notes, 2, 70–80.

Nelson, K. (2007). Young minds in social worlds: Experience, meaning, and memory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Newton, P., Reddy, V., & Bull, R. (2000). Children's everyday deception and performance on false-belief tasks. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 18, 297–317.

Nichols, S. (2002). Norms with feeling: Towards a psychological account of moral judgment. Cognition, 84, 221–236.

Nichols, S. (2004). Sentimental rules: On the natural foundations of moral judgment. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

Niehoff, A., & Meister, N. (1972). The cultural characteristics of breast-feeding: A survey. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, 18, 16–20.

Nisbett, R. E., & Cohen, D. (1996). Culture of honor: The psychology of violence in the South. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Nowak, M. A., & Sigmund, K. (2005). Evolution of indirect reciprocity. Nature, 437, 1291–1298.

Nucci, L. P. (2001). Education in the moral domain. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Nucci, L. P., & Turiel, E. (1978). Social interactions in the context of moral and conventional transgressions. Child Development, 49, 400–407.

Núñez, M., & Harris, P. L. (1998). Psychological and deontic concepts: Separate domains or intimate connection? Mind and Language, 13, 153–170.

O'Gorman, R., Henrich, J., & Van Vugt, M. (2009). Constraining free riding in public goods games: Designated solitary punishers can sustain human cooperation. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 276, 323–329.

O'Gorman, R., Wilson, D. S., & Miller, R. R. (2008). An evolved cognitive bias for social norms. Evolution and Human Behavior, 29, 71–78.

O'Neill, D. K. (1996). Two-year-old children's sensitivity to a parent's knowledge state when making requests. Child Development, 67, 659–677.

O'Neill, D. K. (2005). Talking about "new" information: The given/new distinction and children's developing theory of mind. In J. W. Astington & J. A. Baird (Eds.), Why language matters for theory of mind (pp. 84–105). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

O'Neill, D. K., & Happé, F. G. E. (2000). Noticing and commenting on what’s new: Differences and similarities among 22-month-old typically developing children, children with Down syndrome and children with autism. Developmental Science, 3, 457–478.

Oppenheim, D., Emde, R. N., & Warren, S. (1997). Children's narrative representations of mothers: Their development and associations with child and mother adaptation. Child Development, 68, 127–138.

Osgood, C. (1951). The Koreans and their culture. New York: The Ronald Press.

Otterbein, K. F., & Otterbein, C. S. (1965). An eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth: A cross-cultural study of feuding. American Anthropologist, 67, 1470–1482.

Paine, R. (1967). What is gossip about? An alternative hypothesis. Man (n.s.), 2, 278–285.

Paine, R. (1968). Gossip and transaction. Man (n.s.), 3, 305–308.

Panchanathan, K., & Boyd, R. (2004). Indirect reciprocity can stabilize cooperation without the second-order free rider problem. Nature, 432, 499–502.

Parman, S. (1990). Scottish crofters: An historical ethnography of a Celtic village. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Payne, L. D., Mancil, G. R., & Landers, E. (2005). Consequence-based behavioral interventions for classroom teachers. Beyond Behavior, 15, 13–20.

Pellegrini, A. D. (1987). Rough-and-tumble play: Developmental and educational significance. Educational Psychologist, 22, 23–43.

Pellegrini, A. D. (2004). Observing children in their natural worlds: A methodological primer (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Pellegrini, A. D. (2007). The development and function of rough-and-tumble play in childhood and adolescence: A sexual selection theory perspective. In A. Göncü & S. Gaskins (Eds.), Play and development: Evolutionary, sociocultural, and functional perspectives (pp. 77–98). New York: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Pellegrini, A. D., & Smith, P. K. (1998). Physical activity play: The nature and function of a neglected aspect of play. Child Development, 69, 577–598.

Pelto, P. J. (1962). Individualism in Skolt Lapp society. Helsinki: Finnish Antiquities Society.

Perner, J. (1988). Higher-order beliefs and intentions in children’s understanding of social interaction. In J. W. Astington, P. L. Harris, & D. R. Olson (Eds.), Developing theories of mind (pp. 271–294). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Perner, J., & Wimmer, H. (1985). ‘John thinks that Mary thinks that...:’ Attribution of second-order beliefs by five- to ten-year-old children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 39, 437–471.

Peterson, C., & McCabe, A. (1994). A social interactionist account of developing decontextualized narrative skills. Developmental Psychology, 30, 937–948.

Peterson, C., & McCabe, A. (2004). Echoing our parents: Parental influences on children’s narration. In M. W. Pratt & B. E. Fiese (Eds.), Family stories and the life course: Across time and generations (pp. 27–54). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Piaget, J. (1932). The moral judgment of the child (M. Gabain Trans.). London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co.

Piazza, J. R., & Bering, J. M. (2008). Concerns about reputation via gossip promote generous allocations in an economic game. Evolution and Human Behavior, 29, 172–178.

Piazza, J. R., Ingram, G. P. D., & Barkow, J. H. (2009). What people know and want to know about media celebrities: An evolutionary perspective. Manuscript in preparation.

Polak, A., & Harris, P. L. (1999). Deception by young children following noncompliance. Developmental Psychology, 35, 561–568.

Pratt, M. W., & Fiese, B. H. (2004). Family stories and the life course: Across time and generations. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Premack, D., & Woodruff, G. (1978). Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1, 515–526.

Price, M. E., Cosmides, L., & Tooby, J. (2002). Punitive sentiment as an anti-free rider psychological device. Evolution and Human Behavior, 23, 203–231.

Price, S. (1993). Co-wives and calabashes (2nd ed.). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Rakoczy, H., Warneken, F., & Tomasello, M. (2008). The sources of normativity: Young children's awareness of the normative structure of games. Developmental Psychology, 44, 875–881.

Rattray, R. S. (1929). Ashanti law and constitution. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.

Reddy, V. (2007). Getting back to the rough ground: Deception and 'social living'. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences, 362, 621–637.

Reis, H. T., & Gable, S. L. (2000). Event-sampling and other methods for studying everyday experience. In H. T. Reis & C. M. Judd (Eds.), Handbook of research methods in social and personality psychology (pp. 190–222). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Richerson, P. J., & Boyd, R. (2005). Not by genes alone: How culture transformed human evolution. Chicago: Chicago University Press.

Richerson, P. J., Boyd, R., & Henrich, J. (2003). The cultural evolution of human cooperation. In P. Hammerstein (Ed.), The genetic and cultural evolution of cooperation (pp. 357–388). Cambridge: MIT Press.

Roe, S. K. (2007). A brief history of an ethnographic database: The HRAF collection of ethnography. Behavioral and Social Sciences Librarian, 25, 47.

Rogoff, B. (2003). The cultural nature of human development. New York: Oxford University Press.

Rolfe, H. (2006). Where are the men? Gender segregation in the childcare and early years sector. National Institute Economic Review, 195, 103.

Rosenfeld, R., Jacobs, B. A., & Wright, R. (2003). Snitching and the code of the street. British Journal of Criminology, 43, 291–309.

Rosnow, R. L., & Fine, G. A. (1976). Rumor and gossip: The social psychology of hearsay. New York: Elsevier.

Ross, H. S., & den Bak-Lammers, I. M. (1998). Consistency and change in children's tattling on their siblings: Children's perspectives on the moral rules and procedures of family life. Social Development, 7, 275–300.

Rubin, I. (1972). Satmar: An island in the city. Chicago: Quadrangle.

Rubin, K. H. (1973). Egocentrism in childhood: A unitary construct? Child Development, 44, 102–110.

Rysman, A. R. (1977). How the ‘gossip’ became a woman. Journal of Communication, 27, 176–180.

SAMHSA [Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration] (2004). The ABCs of bullying: Addressing, blocking, and curbing school aggression. Retrieved May 13, 2009, from

Sarana, G. (1996). Comparative method. In A. Barnard & J. Spencer (Eds.), Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology (pp. 118–121). London: Routledge.

Scarlett, H. H., Press, A. N., & Crockett, W. H. (1971). Children's descriptions of peers: A Wernerian developmental analysis. Child Development, 42, 439–453.

Schlegel, A. (1992). African political models in the American Southwest: Hopi as an internal frontier society. American Anthropologist, 94, 376–397.

Scott, E., & Panksepp, J. (2003). Rough-and-tumble play in human children. Aggressive Behavior, 29, 539–551.

Silk, J. B. (2002). The form and function of reconciliation in primates. Annual Review of Anthropology, 31, 21–44.

Singer, E., & de Haan, D. (2007). The social lives of young children: Play, conflict and moral learning in day-care groups (M. Pearson, Trans.). Amsterdam: B. V. Uitgeverij.

Siraj-Blatchford, I., & Siraj-Blatchford, J. (2001). An ethnographic approach to researching young children's learning. In G. Mac Naughton, S. A. Rolfe, & I. Siraj-Blatchford (Eds.), Doing early childhood research: International perspectives on theory and practice (pp. 193–207). Maidenhead, England: Open University Press.

Skinner, C. H., Cashwell, T. H., & Skinner, A. L. (2000). Increasing tootling: The effects of a peer-monitored group contingency program on students' reports of peers' prosocial behaviors. Psychology in the Schools, 37, 263–270.

Skinner, C. H., Neddenriep, C. E., Robinson, S. L., Ervin, R., & Jones, K. (2002). Altering educational environments through positive peer reporting: Prevention and remediation of social problems associated with behavior disorders. Psychology in the Schools, 39, 191–202.

Sluckin, A. M., & Smith, P. K. (1977). Two approaches to the concept of dominance in preschool children. Child Development, 48, 917–923.

Smetana, J. G. (1981). Preschool children's conceptions of moral and social rules. Child Development, 52, 1333–1336.

Smetana, J. G. (1988). Adolescents' and parents' conceptions of parental authority. Child Development, 59, 321–335.

Smith, A. B., & Inder, P. M. (1993). Social interaction in same and cross gender pre-school peer groups: A participant observation study. Educational Psychology, 13, 29–40.

Smith, M. E. (1932). The preschool child's use of criticism. Child Development, 3, 137–141.

Sodian, B. (1991). The development of deception in young children. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 9, 173–188.

Sodian, B., Taylor, C., Harris, P. L., & Perner, J. (1991). Early deception and the child’s theory of mind: False trails and genuine markers. Child Development, 62, 468–483.

Sommerfeld, R. D., Krambeck, H. J., Semmann, D., & Milinski, M. (2007). Gossip as an alternative for direct observation in games of indirect reciprocity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA), 104, 17435–17440.

Spacks, P. M. (1985). Gossip. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

Sripada, C. S., & Stich, S. (2005). A framework for the psychology of norms. In P. Carruthers, S. Laurence, & S. Stich (Eds.), The innate mind, Vol. 2: Structure and contents (pp. 280–301). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

Stewart, P. J., & Strathern, A. (2004). Witchcraft, sorcery, rumors, and gossip. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Stirling, R. B. (1956). Some psychological mechanisms operative in gossip. Social Forces, 34, 262–267.

Straus, M. A. (1996). Spanking and the making of a violent society. Pediatrics, 98, 837–842.

Strayer, F. F., & Strayer, J. (1976). An ethological analysis of social agonism and dominance relations among preschool children. Child Development, 47, 980–989.

Strayer, F. F., & Trudel, M. (1984). Developmental changes in the nature and function of social dominance among young children. Ethology and Sociobiology, 5, 279–295.

Subbotsky, E. (n.d.). The narrative function of language and children's moral development. Unpublished manuscript. Retrieved May 11, 2009, from

Suls, J. M. (1977). Gossip as social comparison. Journal of Communication, 27, 164–168.

Sumsion, J. (2005). Male teachers in early childhood education: Issues and case study. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 20, 109–123.

Sutton, J., Smith, P. K., & Swettenham, J. (1999). Social cognition and bullying: Social inadequacy or skilled manipulation? British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 17, 435–450.

Szwed, J. F. (1966). Gossip, drinking, and social control: Consensus and communication in a Newfoundland parish. Ethnology, 5, 434–441.

Talwar, V., & Lee, K. (2002). Development of lying to conceal a transgression: Children's control of expressive behaviour during verbal deception. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 26, 436.

Talwar, V., & Lee, K. (2008). Social and cognitive correlates of children's lying behavior. Child Development, 79, 866–881.

Talwar, V., Lee, K., Bala, N., & Lindsay, R. C. L. (2004). Children's lie-telling to conceal a parent's transgression: Legal implications. Law and Human Behavior, 28, 411–435.

Tashakkori, A., & Teddlie, C. (2003). Handbook of mixed methods in social and behavioral research. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

Thompson, R. A. (1994). Emotion regulation: A theme in search of definition. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59 (2/3, The development of emotion regulation: Biological and behavioral considerations), 25–52.

Tisak, M. S., & Turiel, E. (1988). Variation in seriousness of transgressions and children's moral and conventional concepts. Developmental Psychology, 24, 352–357.

Tomasello, M. (1999). The cultural origins of human cognition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Tomasello, M. (2003). Constructing a language: A usage-based theory of language acquisition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Tomasello, M. (2008). Origins of human communication. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Tooby, J., & Cosmides, L. (2005). Conceptual foundations of evolutionary psychology. In D. M. Buss (Ed.), Handbook of evolutionary psychology (pp. 5–67). New York: Wiley.

Trivers, R. L. (1971). The evolution of reciprocal altruism. Quarterly Review of Biology, 46, 35–57.

Turiel, E. (1983). The development of social knowledge: Morality and convention. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Turiel, E. (2002). The culture of morality: Social development, context, and conflict. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Turiel, E. (2006). Thought, emotions, and social interactional processes in moral development. In M. Killen & J. G. Smetana (Eds.), Handbook of moral development (pp. 7–35). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Turner, M. M., Mazur, M. A., Wendel, N., & Winslow, R. (2003). Relational ruin or social glue? The joint effect of relationship type and gossip valence on liking, trust, and expertise. Communication Monographs, 70, 129–141.

Underwood, M. K., Galenand, B. R., & Paquette, J. A. (2001). Top ten challenges for understanding gender and aggression in children: Why can't we all just get along? Social Development, 10, 248–266.

Van Beek, W. E. A. (1994). The innocent sorcerer: Coping with evil in two African societies (Kapsiki and Dogon). In T. D. Blakely, W. E. A. van Beek, & D. L. Thompson (Eds.), Religion in Africa: Experience and expression (pp. 196–228). London: J. Currey.

Vaughn, B. E., & Santos, A. J. (2007). An evolutionary/ecological account of aggressive behavior and trait aggression in human children and adolescents. In P. H. Hawley, T. D. Little, & P. C. Rodkin (Eds.), Aggression and adaptation: The bright side to bad behavior (pp. 31–63). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Verbeek, P., & de Waal, F. B. M. (2001). Peacemaking among preschool children. Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, 7, 5–28.

Von Frisch, K. (1966). The dancing bees: An account of the life and senses of the honey bee (D. Isle & N. Walker, Trans.). (2nd ed.). London: Methuen.

Wellman, H. M. (1990). The child's theory of mind. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Wellman, H. M. (2002). Understanding the psychological world: Developing a theory of mind. In U. Goswami (Ed.), Blackwell handbook of childhood cognitive development (pp. 167–187). Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Wellman, H. M., Cross, D., & Watson, J. (2001). Meta-analysis of theory-of-mind development: The truth about false belief. Child Development, 72, 655–684.

Wellman, H. M., Harris, P. L., Banerjee, M., & Sinclair, A. (1995). Early understanding of emotion: Evidence from natural language. Cognition and Emotion, 9, 117–149.

Wells, G. (1981). Learning through interaction: The study of language development. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Wert, S. R., & Salovey, P. (2004). A social comparison account of gossip. Review of General Psychology, 8, 122–137.

West, J. (1945). Plainsville, USA. New York: Columbia University Press.

White, L. (2000). Speaking with vampires: Rumor and history in colonial Africa. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Wiessner, P. W. (1977). Hxaro: A regional system of reciprocity for reducing risk among the !Kung San. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Michigan.

Wigglesworth, G., & Stavans, A. (2001). A crosscultural investigation of Australian and Israeli parents' narrative interactions with their children. In K. E. Nelson, A. Aksu-Koç, & C. E. Johnson (Eds.), Children's language, Vol. 10: Developing narrative and discourse competence (pp. 73–91). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Williams, M. (1989). You can curtail tattling. Learning, 17, 53.

Wilson, D. S., Wilczynski, C., Wells, A., & Weiser, L. (2000). Gossip and other aspects of language as group-level adaptations. In C. Heyes & L. Huber (Eds.), The evolution of cognition (pp. 347–365). Cambridge: MIT Press.

Wilson, P. J. (1974). Filcher of good names: An enquiry into anthropology and gossip. Man (n.s.), 9, 93–102.

Wimmer, H., & Perner, J. (1983). Beliefs about beliefs: Representation and constraining function of wrong beliefs in young children's understanding of deception. Cognition, 13, 103–128.

Winn, R. L., & Newton, N. (1982). Sexuality in aging: A study of 106 cultures. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 11, 283–298.

Wittgenstein, L. (2001). Philosophical investigations (G. E. M. Anscombe, Trans.). (3rd ed.). Malden, MA: Blackwell. (Original work published 1953)

Wright, J. C., & Bartsch, K. (2008). Portraits of early moral sensibility in two children's everyday conversations. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 54, 56–85

Yates, J. (2006). ‘You just don't grass:’ Youth, crime and ‘grassing’ in a working class community. Youth Justice, 6, 195–210.

Yau, J., & Smetana, J. G. (2003). Conceptions of moral, social-conventional, and personal events among Chinese preschoolers in Hong Kong. Child Development, 74, 647–658.

Yerkovich, S. (1977). Gossiping as a way of speaking. Journal of Communication, 27, 192–196.

Zavella, P. (1987). Women's work and Chicano families: Cannery workers of the Santa Clara valley. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Zempleni-Rabain, J. (1973). Food and the strategy involved in learning fraternal exchange among Wolof children. In P. Alexandre (Ed.), French perspectives in African studies: A collection of translated essays (pp. 220–233). London: Oxford University Press / International African Institute.


Repository Staff Only: item control page