A Cognitive-Systemic Reconstruction of Maslow's Theory of Self-Actualization

Heylighen, Francis (1992) A Cognitive-Systemic Reconstruction of Maslow's Theory of Self-Actualization. [Journal (Paginated)]

Full text available as:

[img] ASCII


Maslow's need hierarchy and model of the self-actualizing personality are reviewed and criticized. The definition of self-actualization is found to be confusing, and the gratification of all needs is concluded to be insufficient to explain self-actualization. Therefore the theory is reconstructed on the basis of a second-order, cognitive-systemic framework. A hierarchy of basic needs is derived from the urgency of perturbations which an autonomous system must compensate in order to maintain its identity. It comprises the needs for homeostasis, safety, protection, feedback and exploration. Self-actualization is redefined as the perceived competence to satisfy these basic needs in due time. This competence has three components: material, cognitive and subjective. Material and/or cognitive incompetence during childhood create subjective incompetence, which in turn inhibits the further development of cognitive competence, and thus of self-actualization.

Item Type:Journal (Paginated)
Keywords:humanistic psychology, self-actualization, perceived competence, cognition, autonomous systems, human motivation, problem-solving, Maslow, need hierarchy, mental health, openness to experience, locus of control, personality, compensating perturbations
Subjects:Psychology > Clinical Psychology
Psychology > Cognitive Psychology
Psychology > Developmental Psychology
Psychology > Social Psychology
ID Code:692
Deposited By: Heylighen, Francis
Deposited On:19 Jun 1998
Last Modified:11 Mar 2011 08:54


Repository Staff Only: item control page