Üner Tan Syndrome: Review and Emergence of Human Quadrupedalism in Self-Organization, Attractors and Evolutionary Perspectives

Tan, Prof. Dr. Uner and Tamam, Prof. Dr. Yusuf and Karaca, Dr. Sibel and Tan, Prof. Dr. Meliha (2012) Üner Tan Syndrome: Review and Emergence of Human Quadrupedalism in Self-Organization, Attractors and Evolutionary Perspectives. [Book Chapter]

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The first man reported in the world literature exhibiting habitual quadrupedal locomotion was discovered by a British traveler and writer on the famous Baghdat road near Havsa/Samsun on the middle Black-Sea coast of Turkey (Childs, 1917). Interestingly, no single case with human quadrupedalism was reported in the scientific literature after Child's first description in 1917 until the first report on the Uner Tan syndrome (UTS: quadrupedalism, mental retardation, and impaired speech or no speech)in 2005 (Tan, 2005, 2006). Between 2005 and 2010, 10 families exhibiting the syndrome were discovered in Turkey with 33 cases: 14 women (42.4%) and 19 men (57.6%). Including a few cases from other countries, there were 25 men (64.1%)and 14 women (35.9%). The number of men significantly exceeded the number of women (p < .05). Genetics alone did not seem to be informative for the origins of many syndromes, including the Uner Tan syndrome. From the viewpoint of dynamical systems theory, there may not be a single factor including the neural and/or genetic codes that predetermines the emergence of the human quadrupedalism.Rather, it may involve a self-organization process, consisting of many decentralized and local interactions among neuronal, genetic, and environmental subsystems. The most remarkable characteristic of the UTS, the diagonal-sequence quadrupedalism is well developed in primates. The evolutionarily advantage of this gait is not known. However, there seems to be an evolutionarily advantage of this type of locomotion for primate evolution, with regard to the emergence of complex neural circuits with related highly complex structures. Namely, only primates with diagonal-sequence quadrupedal locomotion followed an evolution favoring larger brains, highly developed cognitive abilities with hand skills, and language, with erect posture and bipedal locomotion, creating the unity of human being. It was suggested that UTS may be considered a further example for Darwinian diseases, which may be associated with an evolutionary understanding of the disorders using evolutionary principles, such as the natural selection. On the other hand, the human quadrupedalism was proposed to be a phenotypic example of evolution of reverse, i.e., the reacquisition by derived populations of the same character states as those of ancestor populations. It was also suggested that the emergence of the human quadrupedalism may be related to self-organizing processes occurring in complex systems, which select or attract one preferred behavioral state or locomotor trait out of many possible attractor states. Concerning the locomotor patterns, the dynamical systems in brain and body of the developing child may prefer some kind of locomotion, according to interactions of the internal components and the environmental conditions, without a direct role of any causative factor(s), such as genetic or neural codes, consistent with the concept of self-organization, suggesting no single element may have a causal priority.

Item Type:Book Chapter
Keywords:Uner Tan syndrome, human quadrupedalism, mental retardation, speech, ataxia, genetics, cognition, locomotion, tetrapods, diagonal-sequence quadrupedalism, Darwinian medicine, atavism, complex systems, self-organization, central pattern generator, evolution in reverse, evolution, human
Subjects:Neuroscience > Behavioral Neuroscience
Neuroscience > Neurology
Neuroscience > Neurophysiology
Neuroscience > Neuropsychology
ID Code:8967
Deposited By: Tan, Prof. Dr. Uner
Deposited On:04 May 2013 23:24
Last Modified:04 May 2013 23:24

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