Items from Web Engineering track
Number of items: 12.
and Borodin, Yevgen
and Ramakrishnan, I. V.
and Ramakrishnan, C. R. Automated Construction of Web Accessibility Models from Transaction Click-streams.
Screen readers, the dominant assistive technology used by visually impaired people to access the Web, function by speaking out the content of the screen serially. Using screen readers for conducting online transactions can cause considerable information overload, because transactions, such as shopping and paying bills, typically involve a number of steps spanning several web pages. One can combat this overload by using a transaction model for web accessibility that presents only fragments of web pages that are needed for doing transactions. We can realize such a model by coupling a process automaton, encoding states of a transaction, with concept classiﬁers that identify page fragments “relevant” to a particular state of the transaction. In this paper we present a fully automated process that synergistically combines several techniques for transforming unlabeled click-stream data generated by transactions into a transaction model. These techniques include web content analysis to partition a web page into segments consisting of semantically related content, contextual analysis of data surrounding clickable objects in a page, and machine learning methods, such as clustering of page segments based on contextual analysis, statistical classiﬁcation, and automata learning. The use of unlabeled click streams in building transaction models has important beneﬁts: (i) visually impaired users do not have to depend on sighted users for creating manually labeled training data to construct the models; (ii) it is possible to mine personalized models from unlabeled transaction click-streams associated with sites that visually impaired users visit regularly; (iii) since unlabeled data is relatively easy to obtain, it is feasible to scale up the construction of domain-speciﬁc transaction models (e.g., separate models for shopping, airline reservations, bill payments, etc.); (iv) adjusting the performance of deployed models over time with new training data is also doable. We provide preliminary experimental evidence of the practical effectiveness of both domain-speciﬁc, as well as personalized accessibility transaction models built using our approach. Finally, this approach is applicable for building transaction models for mobile devices with limited-size displays, as well as for creating wrappers for information extraction from web sites.
and Goergen, Daniel Co-Browsing Dynamic Web Pages.
and Risse, Thomas Combining Global Optimization with Local Selection for Efficient QoS-aware Service Composition.
The run-time binding of web services has been recently put forward in order to support rapid and dynamic web service compositions. With the growing number of alternative web services that provide the same functionality but differ in quality parameters, the service composition becomes a decision problem on which component services should be selected such that user’s end-to-end QoS requirements (e.g. availability, response time) and preferences (e.g. price) are satisﬁed. Although very efficient, local selection strategy fails short in handling global QoS requirements. Solutions based on global optimization, on the other hand, can handle global constraints, but their poor performance renders them inappropriate for applications with dynamic and realtime requirements. In this paper we address this problem and propose a solution that combines global optimization with local selection techniques to beneﬁt from the advantages of both worlds. The proposed solution consists of two steps: ﬁrst, we use mixed integer programming (MIP) to ﬁnd the optimal decomposition of global QoS constraints into local constraints. Second, we use distributed local selection to ﬁnd the best web services that satisfy these local constraints. The results of experimental evaluation indicate that our approach signiﬁcantly outperforms existing solutions in terms of computation time while achieving close-tooptimal results.
and Tatsubori, Michiaki
and Trent, Scott
and Tozawa, Akihiko
and Onodera, Tamiya Highly Scalable Web Applications with Zero-Copy Data Transfer.
The performance of server-side applications is becoming increasingly important as more applications exploit the Web application model. Extensive work has been done to improve the performance of individual software components such as Web servers and programming language runtimes. This paper describes a novel approach to boost Web application performance by improving inter-process communication between a programming language runtime and Web server runtime. The approach reduces redundant processing for memory copying and the context switch overhead between user space and kernel space by exploiting the zero-copy data transfer methodology, such as the sendfile system call. In order to transparently utilize this optimization feature with existing Web applications, we propose enhancements of the PHP runtime, FastCGI protocol, and Web server. Our proposed approach achieves a 126% performance improvement with microbenchmarks and a 44% performance improvement for a standard Web benchmark, SPECweb2005.
and Suzumura, Toyotaro HTML Templates that Fly: A Template Engine Approach to Automated Off-loading from Server to Client.
Web applications often use HTML templates to separate the webpage presentation from its underlying business logic and objects. This is now the de facto standard programming model for Web application development. This paper proposes a novel implementation for existing server-side template engines, FlyingTemplate, for (a) reduced bandwidth consumption in Web application servers, and (b) off-loading HTML generation tasks to Web clients. Instead of producing a fully-generated HTML page, the proposed template engine produces a skeletal script which includes only the dynamic values of the template parameters and the bootstrap code that runs on a Web browser at the client side. It retrieves a client-side template engine and the payload templates separately. With the goals of efficiency, implementation transparency, security, and standards compliance in mind, we developed FlyingTemplate with two design principles: effective browser cache usage, and reasonable compromises which restrict the template usage patterns and relax the security policies slightly but in a controllable way. This approach allows typical template-based Web applications to run effectively with FlyingTemplate. As an experiment, we tested the SPECweb2005 banking application using FlyingTemplate without any other modiﬁcations and saw throughput improvements from 1.6x to 2.0x in its best mode. In addition, FlyingTemplate can enforce compliance with a simple security policy, thus addressing the security problems of client-server partitioning in the Web environment.
and Yang, Shaohua
and Han, Yanbo Mashroom: End-User Mashup Programming Using Nested Tables.
This paper presents an end-user-oriented programming environment called Mashroom. Major contributions herein include an end-user programming model with an expressive data structure as well as a set of formally-defined mashup operators. The data structure takes advantage of nested table, and maintains the intuitiveness while allowing users to express complex data objects. The mashup operators are visualized with contextual menu and formula bar and can be directly applied on the data. Experiments and case studies reveal that end users have little difficulty in effectively and efficiently using Mashroom to build mashup applications.
and Benatallah, Boualem
and Vayssière, Julien
and Saint-Paul, Régis
and Casati, Fabio Rapid Development of Spreadsheet-based Web Mashups.
The rapid growth of social networking sites and web communities have motivated web sites to expose their APIs to external developers who create mashups by assembling existing functionalities. Current APIs, however, aim toward developers with programming expertise; they are not directly usable by wider class of users who do not have programming background, but would nevertheless like to build their own mashups. To address this need, we propose a spreadsheet-based Web mashups development framework, which enables users to develop mashups in the popular spreadsheet environment. First, we provide a mechanism that makes structured data ﬁrst class values of spreadsheet cells. Second, we propose a new component model that can be used to develop fairly sophisticated mashups, involving joining data sources and keeping spreadsheet data up to date. Third, to simplify mashup development, we provide a collection of spreadsheet-based mashup patterns that captures common Web data access and spreadsheet presentation functionalities. Users can reuse and customize these patterns to build spreadsheet-based Web mashups instead of developing them from scratch. Fourth, we enable users to manipulate structured data presented on spreadsheet in a drag-and-drop fashion. Finally, we have developed and tested a proof-of-concept prototype to demonstrate the utility of the proposed framework.
and Laredo, Jim
and Bhattacharya, Kamal
and Pasquale, Liliana
and Wassermann, Bruno REST-Based Management of Loosely Coupled Services.
Applications increasingly make use of the distributed platform that the World Wide Web provides – be it as a Software-as-a-Service such as salesforce.com, an application infrastructure such as facebook.com, or a computing infrastructure such as a “cloud”. A common characteristic of applications of this kind is that they are deployed on infrastructure or make use of components that reside in different management domains. Current service management approaches and systems, however, often rely on a centrally managed configuration management database (CMDB), which is the basis for centrally orchestrated service management processes, in particular change management and incident management. The distribution of management responsibility of WWW based applications requires a decentralized approach to service management. This paper proposes an approach of decentralized service management based on distributed configuration management and service process co-ordination, making use RESTful access to configuration information and ATOM-based distribution of updates as a novel foundation for service management processes.
and Zhang, Zhenyu
and Chan, W. K.
and Tse, T. H. Test Case Prioritization for Regression Testing of Service-Oriented Business Applications.
Regression testing assures the quality of modified service-oriented business applications against unintended changes. However, a typical regression test suite is large in size. Earlier execution of those test cases that may detect failures is attractive. Many existing prioritization techniques order test cases according to their respective coverage of program statements in a previous version of the application. On the other hand, industrial service-oriented business applications are typically written in orchestration languages such as WS-BPEL and integrated with workflow steps and web services via XPath and WSDL. Faults in these artifacts may cause the application to extract wrong data from messages, leading to failures in service compositions. Surprisingly, current regression testing research hardly considers these artifacts. We propose a multilevel coverage model to capture the business process, XPath, and WSDL from the perspective of regression testing. We develop a family of test case prioritization techniques atop the model. Empirical results show that our techniques can achieve significantly higher rates of fault detection than existing techniques.
and Iyengar, Arun
and Mikalsen, Thomas
and Rouvellou, Isabelle
and Nahrstedt, Klara A Trust Management Framework for Service-Oriented Environments.
Many reputation management systems have been developed under the assumption that each entity in the system will use a variant of the same scoring function. Much of the previous work in reputation management has focused on providing robustness and improving performance for a given reputation scheme. In this paper, we present a reputation-based trust management framework that supports the synthesis of trust-related feedback from many different entities while also providing each entity with the ﬂexibility to apply different scoring functions over the same feedback data for customized trust evaluations. We also propose a novel scheme to cache trust values based on recent client activity. To evaluate our approach, we implemented our trust management service and tested it on a realistic application scenario in both LAN and WAN distributed environments. Our results indicate that our trust management service can effectively support multiple scoring functions with low overhead and high availability.
and Wilde, Erik Why is the Web Loosely Coupled? A Multi-Faceted Metric for Service Design.
Loose coupling is often quoted as a desirable property of systems architectures. One of the main goals of building systems using Web technologies is to achieve loose coupling. However, given the lack of a widely accepted deﬁnition of this term, it becomes hard to use coupling as a criterion to evaluate alternative Web technology choices, as all options may exhibit, and claim to provide, some kind of “loose” coupling effects. This paper presents a systematic study of the degree of coupling found in service-oriented systems based on a multi-faceted approach. Thanks to the metric introduced in this paper, coupling is no longer a one-dimensional concept with loose coupling found somewhere in between tight coupling and no coupling. The paper shows how the metric can be applied to real-world examples in order to support and improve the design process of service-oriented systems.
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