Preservation Eprints Services - Enabling long-term open access to materials in institutional repositories (IRs)

See also Papers and presentations produced by the project

Preserv bibliography on digital preservation

Latest articles on practical digital preservation
This is an external feed. Not all entries will appear in the classified bibliography

Authoritative papers on key developments and practical applications for digital preservation, viewed through the prism of the Preserv project, which is concerned with preservation services for content from institutional repositories. Chronological by section.

Sections Preservation and institutional repositories | File formats (including Significant properties and representation) | OAIS (including Archive Ingest and Handling Test (AIHT)) | Preservation metadata | Packaging metadata (inc. METS) | OAI and preservation harvesting | Trusted digital repositories | Business models, costs, lifecycle, workflow, policy | Users | Tools (inc. migration, emulation, storage management, identifiers), including Bit-level storage | Practical applications/architectures | Electronic journal archiving | Legal issues | General digital preservation

Last updated 30 September 2009, by Steve Hitchcock
This is the classified edition. All of the papers listed here should be freely accessible, i.e. open access, from the links provided.
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The most recent entries in this bibliography are displayed in the right-hand column.
See also the complementary KeepIt bibliography covering preservation of repositories by different data types, including arts, data, science and teaching materials.

Latest additions

Schonfeld, Roger C. and Ross Housewright, What to Withdraw? Print Collections Management in the Wake of Digitization, Ithaka S+R, September 29, 2009
Considers the evaluation of journal digitisation programmes in the context of library collection management, print preservation and, less directly, digital preservation

Fitzpatrick, Kathleen, Planned Obsolescence: Publishing, Technology, and the Future of the Academy, 26 Sep 2009, forthcoming from NYU Press
Here 'obsolescence' is not as specific as software or format obsloescence, being concerned with broader issues of text and the evaluation of scholarship and authorship, but there is a full section on digital preservation

Grace, Stephen, Enhanced Ingest to Digital e-research Repositories: final report, Project Report, JISC Information Environment Repository, 22 Sep 2009
From the abstract/conclusion: "The project developed a demonstrator that implemented an enhanced deposit and ingest process to a digital repository based on Fedora. The process incorporates the SWORD API for deposit, and accepts deposits that contain multiple files (packaged as a zip file). The workflow performs preservation actions (e.g. capturing PREMIS metadata, format migration), extraction of resource discovery metadata (for text-based formats such as PDF, MS Word, HTML), and capture of publisher self-archiving policies (for post-prints). ... The prototype developed by the project demonstrated the utility of our approach; however, the resulting software is not (nor was it intended to be) of production quality."

Steinhart, Gail, Dianne Dietrich, and Ann Green, Establishing Trust in a Chain of Preservation: The TRAC Checklist Applied to a Data Staging Repository (DataStaR), D-Lib Magazine, 15 (9/10), September/October 2009

Knight, Gareth, Developing Services for Archiving and Preservation in a Distributed Environment (SHERPA DP2) Final Report, JISC Information Environment Repository, 06 Sep 2009

Davies, Richard, Lifecycle Information for e-Literature (LIFE2) Final Report, JISC Information Environment Repository, 04 Sep 2009

Hitchcock, Steve, Tarrant, David and Carr, L Towards repository preservation services: Final report from the JISC Preserv 2 project, JISC Information Environment Repository, 13 Aug 2009

Angevaare, Inge (Ed.), A Future for our Digital Memory: permanent access to information in the Netherlands NCDD – Netherlands Coalition for Digital Preservation Interim report - summary in English. Dutch report 1 July 2009; English summary 1 September 2009

Rossi, Christian, From distribution to preservation of digital documents, E-LIS, 27 Jun 2009
Good non-technical explanation and contextualisation of the technical layers that characterise the digital preservation problem

Marcum, Deanna B. Preservation in the Digital Age, a Moral and Legal Obligation, ETD 2009 12th International Symposium on Electronic Theses and Dissertations, Pittsburgh, June 10-13, 2009

Dappert, Angela and Farquhar, Adam, Significance is in the Eye of the Stakeholder, PLANETS project, 8th June 2009, in ECDL, Corfu, September 2009, to appear

Barbedo, Francisco, Castro, Rui, Corujo, Luis, Faria, Luis, Ferreira, Miguel, Henriques, Cecilia, Ramalho, Jose Carlos, RODA - A Service-Oriented Repository to Preserve Authentic Digital Objects, SMARTech repository at Georgia Tech, from OR09, 20-May-2009

Brody, Tim, Carr, Leslie, and Tarrant, David, From the Desktop to the Cloud: Leveraging Hybrid Storage Architectures in Your Repository, SMARTech repository at Georgia Tech, from OR09, 19-May-2009

Lowe, David and Michael J. Bennett, A Status Report on JPEG 2000 Implementation for Still Images: The UConn Survey, DigitalCommons@UConn, 2009, in Society of Imaging Science and Technology's Archiving 2009 Conference, Arlington, VA, May 7, 2009

Tarrant, David, Ben O’Steen, Tim Brody, Steve Hitchcock, Neil Jefferies and Leslie Carr, Using OAI-ORE to Transform Digital Repositories into Interoperable Storage and Services Applications, Code4Lib Journal, Issue 6, 2009-03-30

Preservation and institutional repositories

Aschenbrenner, Andreas, Tobias Blanke, Mark Hedges, David Flanders and Ben O'Steen, The Future of Repositories? Patterns for (Cross-)Repository Architectures, D-Lib Magazine, Volume 14 Number 11/12, November/December 2008
Not strictly on preservation, but among its broader repository architectures and services themes the paper neatly weaves in some of the themes Preserv is exploring. A fascinating view that demands careful reading. At times the paper gets a little ahead of itself in suggesting that certain capabilities have been realised, but even in its anticipation it is leading in the right direction.

Haber, Stuart, Kamat, Pandurang and Kamineni, Kiran, A content integrity service for digital repositories, HP Laboratories, HPL-2008-177, October 21, 2008

Hitchcock, Steve, David Tarrant, Adrian Brown, Ben O’Steen, Neil Jefferies and Leslie Carr, Towards smart storage for repository preservation services, iPRES 2008 Fifth International Conference on Preservation of Digital Objects, London, 29-30th September 2008
also in ECS EPrints, Southampton University, 13 Oct 2008

Ramalho, Jose Carlos, Miguel Ferreira, Luis Faria, Rui Castro, Francisco Barbedo, and Luis Corujo, RODA and Crib: A Service-Oriented Digital Repository, iPRES 2008 Fifth International Conference on Preservation of Digital Objects, London, 29-30th September 2008
"One of the highlights (of iPres 2008) for me ... describe(s) the preservation solution developed as part of the RODA and CRiB projects: a service oriented preservation approach to dealing with repository information using the concept of significant properties … ahhh, music to the ears! All up and running and being used by the Portuguese National Archives." Neil Grindley, JISC Information Environment Team blog, 2 October 2008

Sierman, Barbara, Long Term Preservation for repositories, in A DRIVER's Guide to European Repositories: Five studies of important Digital Repository related issues and good practices, Kasja Weenink, Leo Waaijers and Karen van Godtsenhoven (eds), Amsterdam University Press/Surf/EU-Driver, 16 January 2008, 153-184

General coverage of preservation and, apart from a couple of short sections, appears not to be very specific to repositories

Agnew, Grace, and Yang Yu, The Rutgers Workflow Management System: Migrating a Digital Object Management Utility to Open Source, The Code4Lib Journal, issue 1, 2007-12-17
Describes a workflow-ingest tool for a Fedora repository

Brody, Tim, Leslie Carr, Jessie M.N. Hey, Adrian Brown, Steve Hitchcock, PRONOM-ROAR: Adding Format Profiles to a Repository Registry to Inform Preservation Services, International Journal of Digital Curation, Vol. 2, No. 2, December 2007

Carr, Les, EPrints and the Sun Storagetek 5800 System, A Persistent, Scalable and Interoperable Solution (pdf 9pp), Sun Microsystems White Paper, November 2007
Sketches some initial architectures and considers the practical implementation of this Sun storage system with an EPrints repository. "At the most superficial level, simply having easy access to that quantity of storage can revolutionise the use to which repositories can be put"

Grant, Carl, Delivering Digital Repositories with Open Solutions (pdf 21pp), Sun Microsystems White Paper, Version 8.0, November 2007

Treloar, Andrew, David Groenewegen and Cathrine Harboe-Ree, The Data Curation Continuum: Managing Data Objects in Institutional Repositories, D-Lib Magazine, Vol. 13, No. 9/10, September/October 2007
Comment from Caveat Lector blog, 18 September 2007: "I cannot express how blown away I am with the strikingly intelligent pragmatism (the authors frm Monash University) display"

Patel, Manjula and Simon Coles, A study of Curation and Preservation Issues in the eCrystals Data Repository and Proposed Federation, JISC eBank-UK Project, Final Version (Revised), 7th September 2007
An impressive report that takes a proactive and rigorous, enquiring approach to identify the key issues. What's important is that it engages the repository view, and real scenarios, with the preservation view.

Smith, MacKenzie, and Reagan W. Moore, Digital Archive Policies and Trusted Digital Repositories, International Journal of Digital Curation, Vol. 2, No. 1, June 2007
This might have been included in the Trusted Digital Repositories section of this bibliography, but is included here because if details (in a quite technical way) important aspects of the interface between a repository (here called a 'digital archive') and a preservation service (here referred to as a preservation system)

Knight, Gareth, and Mark Hedges, Modelling OAIS Compliance for Disaggregated Preservation Services, International Journal of Digital Curation, Vol. 2, No. 1, June 2007

Bradley, Kevin, Junran Lei and Chris Blackall, Towards an Open Source Archival Repository and Preservation System, UNESCO Memory of the World Programme and Australian Partnership for Sustainable Repositories (APSR), June 2007
"Recommendations on the Implementation of an Open Source Digital Archival and Preservation System and on Related Software Development." Focus seems to be museums and cultural heritage, so not necessarily the type of content found in IRs. The software examined includes DSpace, Fedora and Greenstone.

Hitchcock, Steve, Tim Brody, Jessie M.N. Hey and Leslie Carr, Digital Preservation Service Provider Models for Institutional Repositories: Towards Distributed Services, D-Lib Magazine, Vol. 13, No. 5/6, May/June 2007
Comment from Caveat Lector blog, 16 May 2007: "a fine article on preservation vis-à-vis institutional repositories."

Hirtle, Peter B., Copyright Keeps Open Archives and Digital Preservation Separate, RLG DigiNews, April 15, 2007

Hitchcock, Steve, Jessie Hey, Tim Brody and Leslie Carr, Laying the Foundations for Repository Preservation Services, Final report from the JISC Preserv project, JISC, 7 March 2007

Knight, Gareth, Recommendations to ensure the long-term preservation of digital objects stored by institutional repositories (pdf 11pp) Sherpa-DP project report, 28 February 2007

Hockx-Yu, Helen, Digital preservation in the context of institutional repositories, E-LIS, 06 October 2006, also in Program: Electronic Library and Information Systems, Vol. 40, No. 3, 2006, 232-243

Curtis, Joseph, AONS System Documentation, Australian Partnership for Sustainable Repositories, The Australian National University, Revision 169 2006-09-29, September 2006
"AONS (Automated Obsolescence Notification System) is a system to analyse digital repositories and determine whether any digital objects contained therein may be in danger of becoming obsolescent. It uses perservation information about file formats and the software which supports these formats to determine if the formats used by digital objects are in danger."

Wilczek, Eliot and Kevin Glick, Fedora and the Preservation of University Records Project: Reports and Findings, Tufts University and Yale University, Final Narrative Report to National Historical Publications and Records Commission, September 27, 2006
see also
Glick, Kevin and Eliot Wilczek, Fedora and the Preservation of University Records Project, RLG DigiNews, Volume 10, Number 5, 15 October 2006
Strictly, this report is about preserving university records rather than about IRs and research papers, but Fedora has recently been adapted to act as an IR and much of this report has relevance to its preservation capabilities in that context. The RLG DigiNews version can be read as a summary of the full report above.

Ferreira, Miguel, Ana Alice Baptista and José Carlos Ramalho, A Foundation for Automatic Digital Preservation, Ariadne, Issue 48, 30-July-2006
Describes a preservation service architecture that could in principle use a combination of service providers and Web service agents. There is no evaluation here to show how effective this approach is.

see also Lee et al., APSR PREMIS Requirement Statement Project Report, July 2006, in Preservation Metadata section below

Allinson, Julie, OAIS as a reference model for repositories: an evaluation (pdf 17pp), UKOLN, University of Bath, July 2006

Goodyear, Marilu, and Richard Fyffe, Institutional Repositories: An Opportunity for CIO Campus Impact, EDUCAUSE Review, Vol. 41, No. 2, March/April 2006, 10–11
"On most campuses, repository programs already involve librarians, archivists, records managers, and institutional administrators. It is important that the chief information officer (CIO) see (and seize) the opportunity presented by a new IR program to demonstrate how the security and control provided by central infrastructure (secure hardware, campus networks, data centers, etc.) contribute to the long-term preservation of access to and usability of these important campus assets."

Hitchcock, Steve, Tim Brody, Jessie M.N. Hey and Leslie Carr, Preservation for Institutional Repositories: practical and invisible. Ensuring Long-term Preservation and Adding Value to Scientific and Technical data (PV 2005), Edinburgh, UK

Knight, Gareth, An OAIS compliant model for Disaggregated services, SHERPA-DP Report, version 1.1, 5/09/2005 An early model-based, rather than evidence- or experience-based analysis. The Introduction and Figs 5 (detailed view of a disaggregated OAIS-compliant model) and 6 (workflow) provide a reasonable starting point for the relationship between IRs and preservation service providers, but experience will bring more complexity and more clarity

Prudlo, Marion, E-Archiving: An Overview of Some Repository Management Software Tools, Ariadne, Issue 43, 30-April-2005
Disconnected coverage of archiving, preservation, LOCKSS, Eprints and Dspace, i.e. effectively standalone sections on the latter three

Aschenbrenner, Andreas and Max Kaiser, White Paper on Digital Repositories, reUSE project, March 2005 (pdf 90pp)

Bradley, Kevin, APSR Sustainability Issues Discussion Paper, Australian Partnership for Sustainable Repositories - National Library of Australia, 28 January 2005
Broad ranging agenda, more the first word (by APSR) than the last word

Wheatley, Paul, Institutional Repositories in the Context of Digital Preservation (pdf 19pp), Digital Preservation Coalition, Technology Watch Series Report 04-02, March 2004
see erpaAssessment of this paper

James, Hamish; Ruusalepp, Raivo; Anderson, Sheila; Pinfield, Stephen, Feasibility and Requirements Study on Preservation of E-Prints (pdf 69pp) , JISC, October 29, 2003
Major sections on file formats, preservation metadata and cost models, and describes a core set of non-functional requirements that would make IRs 'trusted' based on RLG-OCLC criteria and OAIS, and recommends that preservation tasks might be outsourced to specialist support services
see also
Pinfield, Stephen; James, Hamish, The Digital Preservation of e-Prints, D-Lib Magazine, Vol. 9 No. 9, September, 2003
Counters the Harnad view, that preservation should not be a priority for eprints, with its own rhetoric that raises questions about preservation but doesn't get to grips or answer any of its own questions

Müer, Eva, Uwe Klosa, Peter Hansson, Stefan Andersson, Archiving Workflow between a Local Repository and the National Archive: Experiences from the DiVA Project (11pp), ECDL conference, Trondheim, August 2003

Wheatley, Paul, A way forward for developments in the digital preservation functions of DSpace: options, issues and recommendations, 25th July 2003
Not about DSpace but a discussion document about preservation features that could be considered for inclusion at that time

Lynch, Clifford A., Institutional repositories: essential infrastructure for scholarship in the digital age. ARL Bimonthly Report, No. 226, February 2003
Not about preservation, but it's a common refrain in this treatise about the institution's commitment to stewardship, including preservation, that an IR implies. Mentions idea of "federating" institutional repositories, e.g. swaps of storage between institutional repositories to gain geographic and systems diversity in pursuit of backup, preservation, and disaster recovery

Tansley, R., Bass, M. and Smith, M., DSpace as an Open Archival Information System: Current Status and Future Directions, Proceedings of Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries: 7th European Conference, ECDL 2003, Trondheim, Norway, August 2003, LNCS 2769 (Springer Verlag), pp. 446-460 (abstract only)
or see ppt slides version

Bass, Michael J., David Stuve, R. Tansley, Margret Branschofsky, Peter Breton, P. Carmichael, Bill Cattey, Dan Chudnov and J. Ng, DSpace Internal Reference Specification, Technology & Architecture, MIT, Hewlett-Packard, 2002-03-01

Day, Michael, E-print Services and Long-term Access to the Record of Scholarly and Scientific Research, Ariadne, Issue 28, 22-June-2001
see erpaAssessment of this article

see also
erpaAssessments, Project Abstract: DSpace, 17.01.2003

File formats

Abrams, Stephen, Sheila Morrissey, Tom Cramer, Next-Generation JHOVE2 Architecture for Format-Aware Characterization, iPRES 2008 Fifth International Conference on Preservation of Digital Objects, London, 29-30th September 2008
also at

Chute, Ryan and Herbert Van de Sompel, Introducing djatoka: A Reuse Friendly, Open Source JPEG 2000 Image Server, D-Lib Magazine, Vol. 14 No. 9/10, September/October 2008

Pearson, David, and Colin Webb, Defining File Format Obsolescence: A Risky Journey, International Journal of Digital Curation, Vol. 3, No. 1 (2008), announced August 2008
About AONS II (Automatic Obsolescence Notification System)

Buonora, Paolo, and Franco Liberati, A Format for Digital Preservation of Images: A Study on JPEG 2000 File Robustness, D-Lib Magazine, Vol. 14 No. 7/8, July/August 2008

Ribera Turró, Mireia, Is the PDF format accessible? E-LIS, 08 May 2008

Fanning, Betsy A., Preserving the Data Explosion: Using PDF, Digital Preservation Coalition, Technology Watch Report 08-02, April 2008 (pdf 27pp)
"Using PDF/A as a standard will help information officers ensure that key business data survives. But it should never be viewed as the Holy Grail. It is merely a tool in the armoury of a well thought out records management policy.“ Adrian Brown, DPC press release
"I wish a little more attention had been paid to the writing, which is messy in places, but there's a lot of useful information there." Gary McGath, File Formats Blog, April 25, 2008

Rog, Judith and Caroline van Wijk, Evaluating File Formats for Long-term Preservation (pdf 11pp), Koninklijke Bibliotheek, February 2008

Buckley, Robert, JPEG 2000 - a Practical Digital Preservation Standard? Digital Preservation Coalition, Technology Watch Report 08-01, February 2008 (pdf 28pp)

Abrams,Stephen, File Formats, instalment of DCC, Digital Curation Manual Version 1.0, October 2007

Ditch, Walter, XML-based Office Document Standards, version 1.0, JISC Techwatch report, August 2007

Vitale, Tim, Digital Image File Formats – TIFF, JPEG, JPEG2000, RAW and DNG (pdf 45pp), Version 20, July 2007

Sefton, Peter, An integrated approach to preparing, publishing, presenting and preserving theses (pdf 24pp), ETD 2007 added values to e-theses: 10th International Symposium on Electronic Theses and Dissertations, Uppsala, Sweden, 13-16 June 2007
Describes the Integrated Content Environment for research and scholarship (ICE-RS).

Rauch, Carl, Harald Krottmaier and Klaus Tochtermann, File-Formats for Preservation: Evaluating the Long-Term Stability of File-Formats, ELPUB2007, Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Electronic Publishing, Vienna, edited by Leslie Chan and Bob Martens, 13-15 June 2007, pp. 101-106

Barnes, Ian, The Digital Scholar's Workbench, ELPUB2007, Openness in Digital Publishing: Awareness, Discovery and Access - Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Electronic Publishing, Vienna, Austria, 13-15 June 2007, edited by Leslie Chan and Bob Martens, pp. 285-296

Knight, Gareth, File format typing and format registries (pdf 10pp), Sherpa-DP project report, 2 March 2007
Among others, covers PRONOM, PRONOM Persistent Unique Identifier and DROID. "it is recommended the AHDS Preservation Service use JHOVE to generate technical information and consider the implementation of a format registry when they provide functionality, such as obsolescence monitoring that is unavailable in a repository-level application."

Peters McLellan, Evelyn, Selecting Digital File Formats for Long-Term Preservation (pdf 26pp), InterPARES 2, General Study 11, Final Report, December 4, 2006 (revised March 13, 2007)
Gladney comment, Digital Document Quarterly, Vol. 7 No. 3, 3Q2008

Barnes, Ian, Preservation of TeX/LaTeX Documents (pdf 16pp), Australian Partnership for Sustainable Repositories, Australian National University, 21 July 2006

Barnes, Ian, The Preservation of Word Processing Documents (pdf 19pp), Australian Partnership for Sustainable Repositories, Australian National University, 14 July 2006

Rog, Judith, PDF Guidelines: Recommendations for the Creation of PDF Files for Long-term Preservation and Access. Koninklijke Bibliotheek, version 1.4, 14 July 2006

Donnelly, Martin, JSTOR/Harvard Object Validation Environment (JHOVE), Digital Curation Centre Case Studies and Interviews, March 2006 (pdf 21pp)

Brown, Adrian, The PRONOM PUID Scheme: A scheme of persistent unique identifiers for representation information, The National Archives, Digital Preservation Technical Paper: 2, 10 November 2005 (pdf 9pp)

Phelps, Thomas A. and P.B. Watry, A No-Compromises Architecture for Digital Document Preservation, Proceedings of the 9th European Conference on Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries (ECDL 2005), Vienna, September 18-23, 2005

Brown, Adrian, Automatic Format Identification Using PRONOM and DROID, The National Archives, Digital Preservation Technical Paper: 1, 17 September 2005 (pdf 30pp)

Arms, Caroline R. and Carl Fleischhauer, Digital Formats: Factors for Sustainability, Functionality, and Quality (pdf 6pp)
2005-04-29, also presented at Second IS&T Archiving Conference, Washington, D.C., April 2005
see also the authors' ongoing resource Sustainability of Digital Formats Planning for Library of Congress Collections

Brown, Adrian, Automating Preservation: New Developments in the PRONOM Service, RLG DigiNews, Volume 9, Number 2, April 15

Stanescu, A., Assessing the Durability of Formats in a Digital Preservation Environment: The INFORM Methodology, D-Lib Magazine, Volume 10 Number 11, November 2004
on the OCLC INFORM methodology

Christensen, Niels H., Towards format repositories for web archives, 4th International Web Archiving Workshop (IWAW04), August 2004

Clausen, Lars, Handling File Formats, May 2004

Holdsworth, David, and Paul Wheatley, Long-Term Stewardship of Globally-Distributed Representation Information, 12th NASA Goddard/21st IEEE Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies, Adelphi, MD, April 13-16, 2004 (pdf 13pp)

LeFurgy, William G., PDF/A: Developing a File Format for Long-Term Preservation, RLG DigiNews, 7(6), 15 December 2003
see comments: Current Cites, Dec 2003; Crawford, Cites & Insights, July 2004, page 17

Darlington, Jeffrey, PRONOM - A Practical Online Compendium of File Formats, RLG DigiNews, Vol. 7, No. 5, October 15, 2003

Abrams, Stephen L. and Seaman, David, Towards a Global Digital Format Registry, World Library and Information Congress: 69th IFLA General Conference and Council, 1-9 August, 2003, Berlin

Brown, Adrian, Graphics File Formats, The National Archives, Digital Preservation Guidance Note: 4, 9 July 2003 (pdf 14pp)

Brown, Adrian, Selecting File Formats for Long-Term Preservation, The National Archives, Digital Preservation Guidance Note: 1, 19 June 2003 (pdf 8pp)

Müller, Eva, Uwe Klosa, Peter Hansson, Stefan Andersson, Erik Siira, Using XML for Long-term Preservation, ETD 2003: 6th International Conference on Electronic Theses and Dissertations, Berlin, 21-24 May 2003

Wheatley, Paul, Survey and assessment of sources of information on file formats and software documentation (pdf 48pp), The Representation and Rendering Project, Final Report, JISC, 2003

Phelps, Thomas A. and Robert Wilensky, The Multivalent Browser: A Platform for New Ideas, Proceedings of Document Engineering 2001, Atlanta, Georgia, November 2001
on the Multivalent Browser

Ockerbloom, John Mark, Archiving and Preserving PDF Files, RLG DigiNews, Vol. 5, No. 1, February 15, 2001

Lawrence, Gregory, et al., Risk Management of Digital Information: A File Format Investigation. Washington, D.C.: Council on Library and Information Resources, June 2000

Ockerbloom, John, Mediating Among Diverse Data Formats: Thesis Summary (pdf 14pp), January 14, 1998
on the Typed Object Model (TOM)

see also
Liu, Xiaoming, Lyudmila Balakireva, Patrick Hochstenbach and Herbert Van de Sompel, File-based storage of Digital Objects and constituent datastreams: XMLtapes and Internet Archive ARC files, ArXiv, Computer Science, cs.DL/0503016, 3 Jun 2005, presented at ECDL 2005
concatenating XML-based representations of multiple Digital Objects into a single file named an XMLtape

Burner, Mike, and Brewster Kahle, Arc File Format, Version 1.0, September 15, 1996
An archival format rather than authored file format. ARC format is used by Internet Archive to store data. It seems to be concerned with efficient management and storage of large volumes of data and many files rather than more specialised preservation concerns, e.g. format viability and migration

see also
JHOVE (JSTOR/Harvard Object Validation Environment)

DFDL - Grid Forum Data Format Description Language
to define an XML-based language for describing the structure of binary and character encoded (ASCII/Unicode) files and data streams so that their format, structure, and metadata can be exposed

Significant properties and representation information

Significant properties is not just related to formats, but properties tend to be classified by object types and a major part of this is formats. Similarly for representation information, which is why this subsection is included here. Strictly, formats could be seen as a subset of both, so this should be the major section with formats as a subsection. As can be seen above, however, the volume of literature on formats dominates, hence the inversion.

Brown, Adrian, Representation Information Registries, Planets project, White Paper, 29 January 2008
Comment from Digital Curation Blog, 14 April 2008 "contains the best discussion on representation information I have seen"

Knight, Gareth (contributors: Stephen Grace, Lynne Montague), Framework for the definition of significant properties, version: V1 (pdf 49pp), AHDS, InSPECT Project Document, 05/02/2008

Coyne, Mike, David Duce, Bob Hopgood, George Mallen and Mike Stapleton, The Significant Properties of Vector Images, JISC Digital Preservation Programme report, v4.3, 27.11.07 (pdf 74pp)
Examines, and recommends, WebCGM, SVG 1.1 and PDF/A be used as the archival formats for 2D vector graphics

Wilson, Andrew, Significant Properties Report, V2 (pdf 10pp), AHDS, InSPECT Work Package 2.2, 10/04/2007
For origins of Significant Properties see discussion of: Significant Properties workshop, Digital Curation Blog, 26 March 2008


Ockerbloom, John Mark, What repositories do: The OAIS model, Everybody’s Libraries blog, October 13, 2008
Salo comment: My favorite distillation (of OAIS) (slide 51)

see also
Allinson, Julie, OAIS as a reference model for repositories: an evaluation, July 2006

Egger, Alexander, Shortcomings of the Reference Model for an Open Archival Information System (OAIS), TCDL Bulletin (IEEE Technical Committee on Digital Libraries), Volume 2, Issue 2, 2006

Beedham, Hilary, Julie Missen, Matt Palmer and Raivo Ruusalepp, Assessment of UKDA and TNA compliance with OAIS and METS standards, JISC study, 2005
Practical examples of OAIS application

Lavoie, Brian F., Introduction to OAIS, Digital Preservation Coalition, Technology Watch Series Report 04-01, January 2004 (pdf 20pp)

The OAIS Reference Model, section 4B in Digital Preservation Management: Implementing Short-Term Strategies for Long-Term Problems, Cornell University, September 2003
Excellent tutorial

Gladney, H., Use and Misuse of OAIS, Digital Document Quarterly, Vol. 1, No. 3, 3Q2002
DDQ is Gladney's personal newsletter and viewpoint: "The more I considered how OAIS was used in digital preservation articles, the more it puzzled me. I could not firmly determine whether the authors, who mostly were Research Library Group affiliates, viewed OAIS as an ontology or were planning to use it as an architecture. ... .What’s missing is an architecture."

Reference Model for an Open Archival Information System (OAIS) (pdf 148 pp), Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems, CCSDS 650.0-B-1, Blue Book, Issue 1, January 2002, adopted as ISO 14721:2003

Lavoie, Brian, Meeting the challenges of digital preservation: The OAIS reference model, originally in the OCLC Newsletter, No. 243:26-30 (January/February 2000) Introduction to OAIS

Archive Ingest and Handling Test (AIHT)

For completeness this collection of papers from a special issue of D-Lib Magazine are listed under this sub-head. The title of the project places the papers within the context of OAIS, but the papers could just as easily have been variously listed in the sections on Preservation and institutional repositories (DiLauro et al.), File formats (Abrams et al., Anderson et al.) and Tools (Nelson et al.).

The AIHT reveals important practical experience, although there are some differences with anticipated preservation service models for IRs. For example, in AIHT:

  1. There is no scope for interaction between creator and archive
  2. There is no moderated ongoing transfer process or protocol, just a single disc of compressed data containing all files
  3. There is no business model (i.e. who is doing what for whom, and why)
  4. The scope of the test archive may or may not reflect a typical profile of an institutional repository
Shirky, Clay, AIHT: Conceptual Issues from Practical Tests, D-Lib Magazine, Vol. 11, No. 12, December 2005
Practical sections (Phases I, II, III) are useful, notably the parts on identifiers, 'small errors', and 'multiple expressions', although the lack of a business model makes it tricky to assess the relevance of conclusions

Abrams, Stephen, Stephen Chapman, Dale Flecker, Sue Kreigsman, Julian Marinus, Gary McGath, and Robin Wendler, Harvard's Perspective on the Archive Ingest and Handling Test, D-Lib Magazine, Vol. 11, No. 12, December 2005
By the creators of JHOVE, makes a point about versioning of format ID tools: "'These discrepancies (between versions of JHOVE) point out the importance of standardizing on processing tools and criteria for format well-formedness and validity."

DiLauro, Tim, Mark Patton, David Reynolds, and G. Sayeed Choudhury, The Archive Ingest and Handling Test: The Johns Hopkins University Report, D-Lib Magazine, Vol. 11, No. 12, December 2005 Concerned with ingest into Fedora and DSpace-based archival stores

Nelson, Michael L., Johan Bollen, Giridhar Manepalli, and Rabia Haq, Archive Ingest and Handling Test: The Old Dominion University Approach, D-Lib Magazine, Vol. 11, No. 12, December 2005
The only non-library to participate in the AIHT and 'instead, our focus was on alternative archiving concepts'. This is chiefly notable for its use of MPEG-21 DIDL instead of METS: "If we could assume cooperation on the part of the web site maintainer, then the easiest thing for them to do is to install mod_oai, an Apache module that streams out web site contents using the OAI-PMH and complex object formats such as MPEG-21 DIDL. mod_oai essentially converts web sites into OAIS DIPs."

Anderson, Richard, Hannah Frost, Nancy Hoebelheinrich, and Keith Johnson, The AIHT at Stanford University: Automated Preservation Assessment of Heterogeneous Digital Collections, D-Lib Magazine, Vol. 11, No. 12, December 2005
Concerned with file format assessment. One comment stands out: "until it becomes common practice to integrate digital stewardship and preservation concerns into the entire digital content lifecycle - especially front-end content creation - most digital preservation workflows intended to be inclusive will be reactive instead of prescriptive."

Preservation metadata

Caplan, Priscilla, Understanding PREMIS (pdf 26pp), Library of Congress Network Development and MARC Standards Office, February 1, 2009

Guenther, Rebecca S., Battle of the Buzzwords: Flexibility vs. Interoperability When Implementing PREMIS in METS, D-Lib Magazine, Vol. 14 No. 7/8, July/August 2008

PREMIS Data Dictionary for Preservation Metadata, version 2.0, PREMIS (PREservation Metadata: Implementation Strategies) Preservation Metadata Maintenance Activity, April 2008
This publication includes the PREMIS Introduction, the Data Dictionary, and Data Dictionary Entity Hierarchical Listing, which are also available as separate documents

Lavoie, Brian F., PREMIS With a Fresh Coat of Paint: Highlights from the Revision of the PREMIS Data Dictionary for Preservation Metadata, D-Lib Magazine, Vol. 14, No. 5/6, May/June 2008

Woodyard-Robinson, Deborah, Implementing the PREMIS data dictionary: a survey of approaches (pdf 56pp), The PREMIS Maintenance Activity/Library of Congress, 4 June 2007

Guenther, R. and Xie, Z., Implementing PREMIS in Container Formats, Archiving 2007, Arlington, Virginia, 21-24 May 2007 (pdf 4pp)

Hitchcock, Steve, Tim Brody, Jessie M.N. Hey and Leslie Carr, Preservation Metadata for Institutional Repositories: applying PREMIS, Preserv project, 25 January 2007

Coyle, Karen, Rights in the PREMIS Data Model (pdf 32pp), Report for the Library of Congress, December 2006
"a less discovered gem ... While the primary focus of the report is to discuss the required enhancements to incorporate digital object rights information into the PREMIS data model, a particular value of this report is its comprehensive overview of the PREMIS metadata scheme. For those unfamiliar with PREMIS, this report is a good introduction" Frank Cervone, Current Cites, June 2007

Knight, Gareth, A minimal preservation metadata element set for the SHERPA DP Project, v1.3, 07/08/2006 (21pp)

Caplan, Priscilla, Preservation Metadata, DCC Digital Curation Manual, 1 August 2006

Lee, Bronwyn, Gerard Clifton and Somaya Langley, Australian Partnership for Sustainable Repositories PREMIS Requirement Statement Project Report (pdf 59pp), National Library of Australia, July 2006

Lavoie, Brian, and Richard Gartner, Preservation metadata, DPC Technology Watch Series Report 05-01, September 2005 "comprehensive but highly readable update on developments in preservation metadata and METS"

PREMIS (PREservation Metadata: Implementation Strategies) Working Group, Data Dictionary for Preservation Metadata: Final Report of the PREMIS Working Group (May 2005)
"The data dictionary is a translation of the OAIS-based 2002 Framework into a set of implementable semantic units." "represents a significant step forward in terms of closing the gap between theory and practice in preservation metadata, and represents the only cross-institutional, cross-domain consensus-building activity in this area." From Lavoie and Gartner (2005)
The authoritative reference, won the 2005 Digital Preservation Award and the 2006 Society of American Archivists Preservation Publication Award. Superseded by version 2.0.

Guenther, Rebecca, PREMIS - Preservation Metadata Implementation Strategies Update 2: Core Elements for Metadata to Support Digital Preservation, RLG DigiNews, Volume 8, Number 6, Dec. 2004

Caplan, Priscilla, PREMIS - Preservation Metadata - Implementation Strategies Update 1. Implementing Preservation Repositories for Digital Materials: Current Practice and Emerging Trends in the Cultural Heritage Community, RLG DigiNews, Volume 8, Number 5, Oct. 2004
a summary of
Implementing Preservation Repositories For Digital Materials: Current Practice And Emerging Trends In The Cultural Heritage Community, A Report by the PREMIS Working Group, September 2004
results from a survey ... Nearly 50 responses were received ... institutions included libraries, archives, and museums, among others. ... respondents were heavily skewed toward US libraries ... responses underscored a number of issues impacting preservation metadata, including the extent to which repository architectures are informed by OAIS; the needs of repository stakeholders; methods for obtaining metadata for archived digital objects; types of metadata currently used by repositories; the nature and use of rights management metadata; access mechanisms for archived materials; and strategies for meeting long-term preservation objectives. From Lavoie and Gartner (2005)

Day, Michael, Preservation metadata, 11-Dec-2003
also in G. E. Gorman and Daniel G. Dorner (eds.), Metadata applications and management, International Yearbook of Library and Information Management, 2003-2004, London: Facet Publishing, 2004
Good narrative (i.e. not especially technical) review

Day, Michael, Preservation metadata initiatives: practicality, sustainability, and interoperability, ERPANET Training Seminar on Metadata in Digital Preservation, Marburg, Germany, 3-5 September 2003 (revised)

Searle, S., and Thompson, D., Preservation metadata : pragmatic first steps at the National Library of New Zealand. D-Lib Magazine, 9(4), 2003
Little detail, effectively an overview of
National Library of New Zealand, Metadata Standards Framework – Preservation Metadata, November 2002 (pdf 42pp)
Contains the detailed element list for the NLNZ preservation metadata schema 'designed to strike a balance between the principles of preservation metadata and the practicalities of implementing a working set of preservation metadata', but should be cross-checked with the PREMIS Data Dictionary as a later, broader reference

OCLC/RLG Working Group on Preservation Metadata, Preservation Metadata and the OAIS Information Model: A Metadata Framework to Support the Preservation of Digital Objects (pdf 54pp), June 2002
"first international consensus-driven statement on the scope of preservation metadata." From Lavoie and Gartner (2005)
reviewed by Hans Hoffman, DigiCult Info, Issue 2, October 2002 (pp15-20)

Cedars Guide To Preservation Metadata, March 2002

Preservation Metadata for Digital Objects: A Review of the State of the Art, A White Paper by the OCLC/RLG Working Group on Preservation Metadata, January 31, 2001
"provided a definition of preservation metadata, described its role in the digital preservation process, and reviewed a number of existing preservation metadata initiatives, with an emphasis on identifying points of convergence and divergence among them." From Lavoie and Gartner (2005)

Lupovici, Catherine, Julien Masanès, Metadata for long term-preservation, Nedlib Consortium, July 2000

National Library of Australia, Preservation Metadata for Digital Collections, 15 October 1999

Day, M., Metadata for digital preservation: an update, Ariadne, 22 December 1999

Day, Michael, Metadata for Preservation, Cedars Project Document AIW01, CEDARS, 3 August 1998 RLG Working Group on Preservation Issues of Metadata, Final Report, May 1998

see also
National Library of New Zealand Metadata Extraction Tool Version 1.0

Packaging metadata (inc. METS)

Rumsey, Sally and Ben O’Steen, OAI-ORE, PRESERV2 and Digital Preservation, Ariadne, Issue 57, 30-October-2008

Smith, Joan A. and Michael L. Nelson, CRATE: A Simple Model for Self-Describing Web Resources (pdf 12pp), 7th International Web Archiving Workshop (part of ACM IEEE Joint Conference on Digital Libraries), Vancouver, Canada, 23 June 2007
Proposes a "simple preservation model, a complex object consisting of undifferentiated metadata and the resource byte stream" aimed at the "everyday, personal, departmental, or community web site where a long-term preservation strategy does not yet exist." Compares the approach with ARC/WARC, VEO, METS, PREMIS and MPEG-21 DID.

Popham, Michael, An investigation of METS as a method of packaging metadata and data (pdf 6pp), Sherpa-DP project report, 28 April 2006
More specifically on METS for institutional repositories, includes an "investigation of possible uses of METS to package e-prints metadata" and an "assessment of METS as a mechanism for transferring data from DSpace and EPrints repositories"

Bekaert, Jeroen, and Herbert Van de Sompel, Representing Digital Assets using MPEG-21 Digital Item Declaration, ArXiv, Computer Science, cs.DL/0508065, 13 Aug 2005, International Journal on Digital Libraries, accepted for publication
An alternative to METS?

Metadata and Encoding Transmission Standard: METS and Overview and Tutorial, Library of Congress, 2004
"METS has the greatest potential for (organising and linking preservation metadata to its associated content), as it was designed to implement the OAIS Reference Model's abstract model of an Information Package." From Lavoie and Gartner (2005)
see also
XML Formatted Data Units (XFDU), an XML packaging standard developed by CCSDS at NASA/SDSCC
"METS schema inherited as the basis for this effort. METS is a very flexible structure that has been developed by the Digital Library with some attention to the OAIS RM. The metadata and file association methods are very flexible. However, METS is more of a conceptual model and the Representation Data mapping is questionable. The proposed XFDU Data Model should map directly to the OAIS Information Model Classes"

Waibel, Günter, Like Russian Dolls: Nesting Standards for Digital Preservation, RLG DigiNews, Vol. 7, No. 3, June 15, 2003
links OAIS, METS and NISO Data Dictionary—Technical Metadata for Digital Still Images

see also
"Set to be industrial standard, though 'non-free' (companies own IP in various areas)"
NISO Z39.87 Metadata for Still Images and related effort NISO Metadata for Images in XML (NISO MIX)

OAI and preservation harvesting

Smith, Joan A. and Michael L. Nelson, Creating Preservation-Ready Web Resources, D-Lib Magazine, Vol. 14, No. 1/2, January/February 2008
Proposes "a simple model for everyday web sites which takes advantage of the web server itself to help prepare the site's resources for preservation. In this paper we discuss modoai, the web server module we developed to support this approach."

Lewis, Stuart David, and Jon Bell, Using OAI-PMH and METS for exporting metadata and digital objects between repositories, CADAIR, University of Wales Aberystwyth Institutional Repository, 2006 (announced 1 August 2006)
also in Program: Electronic Library and Information Systems, Vol. 40, No. 3, 2006, 268-276

Santhanagopalan, Kamini, Edward A. Fox and Gail McMillan, A Prototype for Preservation and Harvesting of International ETDs using LOCKSS and OAI-PMH (pdf 36pp), 9th International Symposium on Electronic Theses and Dissertations, Quebec City, June 7 - 10, 2006

Bekaert, Jeroen, and Herbert Van de Sompel, Access Interfaces for Open Archival Information Systems based on the OAI-PMH and the OpenURL Framework for Context-Sensitive Services,, Computer Science, cs.DL/0509090, 28 Sep 2005
also presented at PV 2005 Conference, Ensuring Long-term Preservation and Adding Value to Scientific and Technical Data, Edinburgh, November 2005

Bekaert, Jeroen, and Herbert Van de Sompel, A Standards-based Solution for the Accurate Transfer of Digital Assets, D-Lib Magazine, Volume 11 Number 6, June 2005
offers real solutions to real issues, and has particular application to Preserv

Van de Sompel, Herbert, Jeroen Bekaert, Xiaoming Liu, Luda Balakireva and Thorsten Schwander, aDORe: a modular, standards-based Digital Object Repository, ArXiv, Computer Science, cs.DL/0502028, 4 Feb 2005, to appear in Computer Journal

Van de Sompel, Herbert, Michael L. Nelson, Carl Lagoze and Simeon Warner, Resource Harvesting within the OAI-PMH Framework, D-Lib Magazine, Volume 10 Number 12, December 2004 Current Cites comment December 2004

Trusted digital repositories

Day, Michael, Toward Distributed Infrastructures for Digital Preservation: The Roles of Collaboration and Trust, International Journal of Digital Curation, Vol. 3, No. 1 (2008), announced August 2008

Berman, Fran, Ardys Kozbial, Robert H. McDonald, and Brian E. C. Schottlaender, The Need to Formalize Trust Relationships in Digital Repositories, EDUCAUSE Review, vol. 43, no. 3 (May/June 2008), 10-11

Moore, Reagan W. and MacKenzie Smith, Automated Validation of Trusted Digital Repository Assessment Criteria, Journal of Digital Information, Vol 8, No 2 (2007)
this paper is believed to be based on, or a later version of
Moore, R. W. and Smith, M., Assessment of RLG Trusted Digital Repository Requirements. Presented at the “Digital Curation & Trusted Repositories: Seeking Success” Workshop, in conjunction with the Joint Conference on Digital Libraries, JCDL 2006, Chapel Hill, NC, June 11-15, 2006

Trustworthy Repositories Audit & Certification: Criteria and Checklist (pdf 94pp) Center for Research Libraries/RLG-OCLC, Version 1.0, February 2007
Revised and expanded version of the RLG-NARA Audit Checklist for the Certification of Trusted Digital Repositories(August 2005, below)

Kaczmarek, Joanne, Patricia Hswe, Janet Eke and Thomas G. Habing, Using the Audit Checklist for the Certification of a Trusted Digital Repository as a Framework for Evaluating Repository Software Applications, D-Lib Magazine, Vol. 12, No. 12, December 2006
This ought to be an important paper since it explores a possible fault line between the concept of a Trusted Digital Repository and repositories, repository software and services. Frustratingly inconclusive, which suggests there may be more to emerge from this work

Ross, Seamus, and Andrew McHugh, The Role of Evidence in Establishing Trust in Repositories, D-Lib Magazine, Vol. 12, No. 7/8, July/August 2006

Dobratz, S., Schoger, A. and Strathmann, S., The nestor Catalogue of Criteria for Trusted Digital Repository Evaluation and Certification. Presented at the “Digital Curation & Trusted Repositories: Seeking Success” Workshop, in conjunction with the Joint Conference on Digital Libraries, JCDL 2006, Chapel Hill, NC, June 11-15, 2006

Ross, Seamus and Andrew McHugh, Audit and Certification of Digital Repositories: Creating a Mandate for the Digital Curation Centre (DCC), RLG DigiNews, Volume 9, Number 5, 15 October 2005
Lists a daunting range of requirements for trusted repsoitories, and reports DCC's plan to become mandated to manage audit and certification

Rosenthal, David S. H., Thomas Robertson, Tom Lipkis, Vicky Reich and Seth Morabito, Requirements for Digital Preservation Systems: A Bottom-Up Approach, D-Lib Magazine, Vol. 11 No. 11, November 2005
also in ArXiv, Computer Science, cs.DL/0509018, 6 Sep 2005

RLG/NARA, An Audit Checklist for the Certification of Trusted Digital Repositories (draft for comment), August 2005
implements a certification procedure that builds on the RLG-OCLC report from May 2002 (below). All the targets for audit procedure testing are specialist preservation services

Jantz, Ronald and Michael J. Giarlo, Digital Preservation: Architecture and Technology for Trusted Digital Libraries, D-Lib Magazine, Volume 11 Number 6, June 2005
Maggie Jones comment, DIGITAL-PRESERVATION list, 23 June 2005

Trusted Digital Repositories: Attributes and Responsibilities, An RLG-OCLC Report, May 2002
Definitions by RLG and OCLC working group

Business models, costs, lifecycle, workflow, policy

Blue Ribbon Task Force on Sustainable Digital Preservation and Access, Sustaining the Digital Investment: Issues and Challenges of Economically Sustainable Digital Preservation (pdf 78pp), December 2008

Beagrie, Neil, Najla Semple, Peter Williams, and Richard Wright, Digital Preservation Policies Study, JISC, 30 October 2008

This study is well written, helpfully structured, resourceful, and innovative. The main resource provided is in the appendices, where existing, broader institutional strategy documents concerning research, learning and teaching, etc., are analysed and extended by the authors of this study with ways in which DP policy can support and enhance these strategies.
Salo blog comment: "I can’t recommend this report from JISC highly enough. It lays out what needs to appear in an institutional digital preservation policy, how to pitch it as part of the institutional mandate, and what examples are worth following. ... excellent." (4 November 2008)

Dappert, Angela, Bart Ballaux, Michaela Mayr, Sara van Bussel, Report on policy and strategy models for libraries, archives and data centres (pdf 118 pp), v 0.2, PLANETS project, 24 June 2008

Ayris, P., Davies, R., McLeod, R., Miao, R., Shenton, H. and Wheatley, P. Lifecycle information for E-literature: an introduction to the second phase of the LIFE project, UCL Eprints, 23 June, 2008
This is a beautifully produced summary of the project. For the full project report see For repository-related costing examples, see the documentary evidence provided for the SHERPA DP (, June 23, 2008) and SHERPA-LEAP (, June 23, 2008) case studies within the Life 2 project

Quint, Barbara,OCLC Introduces High-Priced Digital Archive Service, Newsbreaks, May 2, 2008
Not a research paper, but a journalist investigates the relative costs of storage solutions, one aimed directly at digital libraries. The OCLC archive service that is the subject here is given a critical examination in relation to other services, yet it presents a robust response to tough questions. This reveals the issues that are driving awareness and takeup of preservation-linked services. See also Chapman (2003)

Beagrie, Neil, Julia Chruszcz, and Brian Lavoie, Keeping Research Data Safe: A Cost Model and Guidance for UK Universities (pdf 169pp), Charles Beagrie Limited, Final Report to JISC, April 2008
Principally about research data, and includes four case studies - Archaeology Data Service, Kings College London (including what was the AHDS), Cambridge University and Southampton University (Crystallography and Oceanography) - the last three of which involve the respective institutional repositories

Wheatley, P., Ayris, P., Davies, R., Mcleod, R. and Shenton, H., The LIFE Model v1.1. Discussion paper, LIFE project, UCL Eprints, 23 October 2007

Currall, James, Claire Johnson, Peter McKinney, The world is all grown digital.... How shall a man persuade management what to do in such times? International Journal of Digital Curation, Vol 2, No. 1, June 2007

Hitchcock, Steve, Tim Brody, Jessie M.N. Hey and Leslie Carr, Survey of repository preservation policy and activity, Preserv project, 9 January 2007

Robertson, R. John, Digital preservation in the Tertiary education sector: management implications, Strathprints, University of Strathclyde Institutional Repository, 03 October 2006, also in Library Review, 55 (3), 173-178
From the summary: "Argues that the long-term curation and preservation of digital assets produced by further education colleges should not be the responsibility of those colleges. ... National memory institutions should strive to establish collaborative curatorial practices with the FE sector. ... Suggests that the preservation of digital assets in the FE sector requires a different approach than the HE sector." Not necessarily! Preserv advocates preservation services for HE.

Hunter, Laurie, Investment in an Intangible Asset, DCC Digital Curation Manual, 31 July 2006

McLeod, Rory, Paul Wheatley, Paul Ayris, and Henry Girling, Lifecycle Information for E-literature (pdf 11pp), LIFE project, UCL Eprints, 8 May 2006 (report produced for the LIFE conference, London, 20 April 2006)
A rare beast, a highly readable and useful end-of-project report, beautifully produced

Palm, Jonas, The Digital Black Hole, Training for Audiovisual Preservation in Europe (TAPE) project, undated (announced 28 Apr 2006)
Presents an analysis of costs for digitizing and long-term storage at the Riksarkivet (National Archives, RA) in Stockholm. "Whatever strategy one chooses to follow, the essential point to consider before undertaking large-scale digitization is the level of long-term financial commitment that can realistically be secured and to develop a preservation strategy accordingly."

Currall, James, and Peter McKinney, Investing in Value: A Perspective on Digital Preservation, D-Lib Magazine, Volume 12, Number 4, April 2006
An interesting scorecard-based value assessment of preservation for various digital materials. Disappointing, from a Preserv perspective, that this approach is not applied to IRs (although it is applied to digital theses), given that the authors are at an institution, University of Glasgow, with one of the first UK IRs

Watson, James, Mapping the landscape, riding a life cycle, The LIFE project research review, University College London, November 2005
Highly regarded review. Little coverage of lifecycle analysis to IRs, suggesting this remains a gap in the literature

Hunter, Laurie, Digital Preservation as an Intangible Asset: An Overview, Digital Curation Centre Workshop on Cost Models for Preserving Digital Assets, British Library, London, July 26, 2005

Oltmans, Erik and Nanda Kol, A Comparison Between Migration and Emulation in Terms of Costs, RLG DigiNews, Volume 9, Number 2, April 15, 2005

Linden, Jim, Sean Martin, Richard Masters, and Roderic Parker, The large-scale archival storage of digital objects, Digital Preservation Coalition, Technology Watch Series Report 04-03, February 2005

Smorul, Mike, Joseph JaJa, Yang Wang, and Fritz McCall, PAWN: Producer – Archive Workflow Network in Support of Digital Preservation, Technical report, CS-TR-4607 UMIACS-TR-2004-49, Institute for Advanced Computer Studies University of Maryland, 2004

Anon, erpa guidance: Cost Orientation Tool. Erpanet, September 2003

Sanett, S., The Cost to Preserve Authentic Electronic Records in Perpetuity: Comparing Costs across Cost Models and Cost Frameworks, RLG DigiNews, 7(4), August 15, 2003

Chapman, S., Counting the Costs of Digital Preservation: Is Repository Storage Affordable? Journal of Digital Information, volume 4 issue 2, May 2003

Lavoie, Brian F., The Incentives to Preserve Digital Materials: Roles, Scenarios, and Economic Decision-Making, White paper, OCLC Research, April 2003

Russell, Kelly and Ellis Weinberger, Cost elements of digital preservation, Cedars project, 31 May 2000
see erpaAssessment of this article

Hodge, Gail M., Best Practices for Digital Archiving: An Information Life Cycle Approach, D-Lib Magazine, Volume 6 Number 1, January 2000
see erpaAssessment for this paper

Ashley, Kevin, Digital Archive Costs: Facts and Fallacies, DLM Forum, September 1999
see erpaAssessment for this paper
Experience-based costing principles, noting that the few examples of actual costings cannot be extrapolated to more general cases. Makes the point that costing is not storage or volume-based, but service-based. Some of the cost considerations - access, user support - are superseded by IRs

see also espida project


Hedstrom, Margaret L., Christopher A. Lee, Judith S. Olson, and Clifford A. Lampe, "The Old Version Flickers More": Digital Preservation from the User's Perspective, The American Archivist, Vol. 69 (Spring/Summer 2006), 159-187

Kenney, Anne R. and Ellie Buckley, Developing Digital Preservation Programs: the Cornell Survey of Institutional Readiness, 2003-2005, RLG DigiNews, Volume 9, Number 4, August 2005

see also the PREMIS survey Implementing Preservation Repositories For Digital Materials: Current Practice And Emerging Trends In The Cultural Heritage Community in the Preservation Metadata section above

Pritchard, Sarah M., Larry Carver, and Smiti Anand, Collaboration for Knowledge Management and Campus Informatics, UCSB, August 23, 2004
UCSB survey with reference to user views on preservation (see section 6)
Warwick Cathro comments in second section, 'The issues and challenges') Preserving the Outputs of Research, International conference Archiving Web Resources, Canberra, 9-11 November 2004

Thomas, Sarah E. and Carl A. Kroch, Project Harvest: A Report of the Planning Grant For the Design of a Subject-Based Electronic Journal Repository, Presented to The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, 1 September 2002

Tools (inc. migration, emulation, storage management, identifiers)

Becker, Christoph, Andreas Rauber, Volker Heydegger, Jan Schnasse, Manfred Thaller, Systematic Characterisation of Objects in Digital Preservation: The eXtensible Characterisation Languages, Journal of Universal Computer Science, Vol. 14, issue 18, 2008

Becker, Christoph, Andreas Rauber, Volker Heydegger, Jan Schnasse, Manfred Thaller, Generic XML Language for Characterising Objects to Support Digital Preservation (pdf 5pp), 23rd Annual ACM Symposium on Applied Computing (SAC’08), Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, March 16-20, 2008

van der Hoeven, Jeffrey, Bram Lohman, Remco Verdegem, Emulation for Digital Preservation in Practice: The Results, International Journal of Digital Curation, Vol. 2, No. 2, December 2007

Describes Dioscuri, the 'first modular emulator for digital preservation'

Thomas, Susan, Fran Baker, Renhart Gittens and Dave Thompson, Cairo tools survey: a survey of tools applicable to the preparation of digital archives for ingest into a preservation repository, Version 1.0, Cairo project, 21 May 2007
to be read in conjunction with (by the same authors)
Cairo use cases: a survey of user scenarios applicable to the Cairo ingest tool, Version 1.0, Cairo project, 21 May 2007

Entlich, Richard and Ellie Buckley, Digging Up Bits of the Past: Hands-on With Obsolescence, RLG DigiNews, Volume 10, Number 5, 15 October 2006
Describes Cornell's File Format and Media Migration Pilot Service, a fascinating project because it deals with real data, principally with media migration as much as file format migration, which makes this a specialised preservation service. However, perhaps the most revealing point is left to the penultimate paragraph: "We believe a superior alternative is to establish institutional repositories in which faculty are encouraged to deposit their work."

van Wijk, Caroline, KB and migration (pdf 26pp), National Library of the Netherlands (Koninklijke Bibliotheek), Digital Preservation Department, working document v0.2, 7 August 2006
Useful and practical example of migration. The last 16 pages illustrate the functional characterisation of a selected article in the KB's e-Depot preservation store, covering content, structure, appearance, context and behaviour. "This characterisation can be used as a framework for migrating objects archived in the e-Depot. It is necessary to define the essence of the original object to be able to conclude whether a conversion result is correct. A functional characterisation is possible by using the five properties"

Ferreira, Miguel, Automatic Evaluation of Migration Quality in Distributed Networks of Converters, TCDL Bulletin (IEEE Technical Committee on Digital Libraries), Volume 2, Issue 2, 2006

Rosenthal, David S. H., Thomas Lipkis, Thomas S. Robertson, and Seth Morabito, Transparent Format Migration of Preserved Web Content,D-Lib Magazine, Volume 11 Number 1, January 2005

McGovern, N., A. Kenney, R. Entlich, W. Kehoe, E. Buckley, Building a Preservation Risk Management Toolbox for Web Resources, D-Lib Magazine, Volume 10 Number 4, April 2004
on Virtual Remote Control, a tool for monitoring websites over time - identifying and responding to detected risk as necessary, with capture as a last resort

Kunze, John A., Towards Electronic Persistence Using ARK Identifiers, California Digital Library, July 2003 (pdf 9pp)

Lorie, R., The UVC: a method for preserving digtal documents, proof of concept, IBM/KB Long-Term Preservation Study Report Series No. 4, December 2002

Mellor, P., Wheatley, P. and Sergeant, D., Migration on request, a practical technique for preservation, in Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries: 6th European Conference, ECDL 2002, Rome, September 16–18, 2002, Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 2458 (Springer: Berlin / Heidelberg), pp. 516-526
available from White Rose Research Online, 22 Apr 2008
Comments from DCC blog: (Jul 25, 2007) "You don't have to constantly migrate your content to current formats to make it point-and-click available; in fact it may be a disservice to your users to do so. Migration on request has always seemed to me a sensible approach (I think it was first demonstrated by Mellor, Wheatley& Sergeant)" ... (Mar 24, 2008) "but the idea hasn't caught on much."

LeFurgy, William G., Levels of Service for Digital Repositories, D-Lib Magazine, Vol. 8 No. 5, May 2002
Not clear if this is a positive or negative view of prospects for digital preservation: "The concept of levels of service reduces my worry." 'Levels of service' refers to what might be done selectively based on the nature of the material deposited. No very specific or practical advice, other than to stick to the rules

Hedstrom, Margaret and Clifford Lampe, Emulation vs. Migration: Do Users Care? RLG DigiNews, Vol. 5 No. 6, 15 December 2001

Granger, S., Digital Preservation and Emulation: from theory to practice, September 2001
see erpaAssessment of this paper

Wheatley, P., Migration - A CAMiLEON discussion paper,Ariadne, Issue 29, September 2001

Lorie, Raymond, A Project on Preservation of Digital Data, RLG DigiNews, Vol. 5, No. 3 , June 15, 2001
on Universal Virtual Computer, an IBM emulation system
see erpaAssessment of this article

Margaret Byrnes, Assigning Permanence Levels to NLM's Electronic Publications, 2000 Preservation: An International Conference on the Preservation and Long Term Accessibility of Digital Materials, York, England, December 6-8, 2000

Granger, Stewart, Emulation as a Digital Preservation Strategy, D-Lib Magazine, Volume 6 Number 10, October 2000

Rothenberg, Jeff, Avoiding Technological Quicksand: Finding a Viable Technical Foundation for Digital Preservation, CLIR Reports, January 1999
on why emulation is the only approach offering a true solution to the problem of digital preservation
see erpaAssessmet of this paper

Baru, Chaitanya, Reagan Moore, Arcot Rajasekar, Michael Wan, The SDSC Storage Resource Broker, Proc. CASCON'98 Conference , Nov.30-Dec.3, 1998, Toronto, Canada (.ps)
on Storage Resource Broker

Bit-level storage (is not so simple either)

Baker, Mary, Mehul Shah, David S. H. Rosenthal, Mema Roussopoulos, Petros Maniatis, TJ Giuli and Prashanth Bungale, A Fresh Look at the Reliability of Long-term Digital Storage, Arxiv, Computer Science, cs/0508130v1, 31 Aug 2005

Baker, Mary, Kimberly Keeton, Sean Martin, Why Traditional Storage Systems Don't Help Us Save Stuff Forever, Proc. 1st IEEE Workshop on Hot Topics in System Dependability (2005), can be found at

Practical applications/architectures

Caplan, Priscilla, Repository to Repository Transfer of Enriched Archival Information Packages, D-Lib Magazine, Volume 14 Number 11/12, November/December 2008
On a project just launched, Towards Interoperable Preservation Repositories (TIPR), a collaboration of The Florida Center for Library Automation], the Cornell University Library and the New York University Libraries, to develop a proof of concept for the exchange of information between digital preservation repositories.

Woods, K., and Geoffrey Brown, Migration Performance for Legacy Data Access, International Journal of Digital Curation, Vol 3, No 2 (2008), September 2008
A good practical study. The case for migration is not wholly convincing, but is qualified: "We convert formats that are not readily accessed within a web browser - including office documents, databases and older multimedia - into browser accessible formats including HTML, PDF and Flash Video. ... Our migration model is migration on request"

Fischer, Randall, Carol Chou, Franco Lazzarino, Updating DAITSS - Transitioning to a web service architecture, iPRES 2008 Fifth International Conference on Preservation of Digital Objects, London, 29-30th September 2008

Kosovic, Douglas, and Jane Hunter, Implementing Preservation Services over the Storage Resource Broker, iPRES 2008 Fifth International Conference on Preservation of Digital Objects, London, 29-30th September 2008

Klas, Claus-Peter, Holger Brocks, Lars Muller, and Matthias Hemmje, Embedding Legacy Environments into A Grid-Based Preservation Infrastructure, iPRES 2008 Fifth International Conference on Preservation of Digital Objects, London, 29-30th September 2008

Aitken, Brian, Petra Helwig, Andrew Jackson, Andrew Lindley, Eleonora Nicchiarelli, Seamus Ross, The Planets Testbed: Science for Digital Preservation, The Code4Lib Journal, Issue 3, 2008-06-23
From the abstract: "Until recently digital preservation has been characterised by practices and processes that could best be described as more art and craft than science. The Planets Testbed provides a controlled environment where preservation tools can be tested and evaluated, and where experiment results can be empirically compared."

Gladney, H. M., Economics and Engineering for Preserving Digital Content, ERPAePRINTS, 05 December 2007
From the abstract: "Economic and technical facts suggest that most preservation work should be shifted from repository institutions to information producers and consumers. The daily tools of both information producers and information consumers can be extended to embed preservation packaging without much burdening these users."

Farquhar, Adam, and Helen Hockx-Yu, Planets: Integrated Services for Digital Preservation, International Journal of Digital Curation, Vol. 2, No. 2, December 2007

Pearson, David, AONS II: continuing the trend towards preservation software 'Nirvana', iPRES 2007, International Conference on Preservation of Digital Objects, Beijing, 11-12 Oct. 2007'Nirvana'%20-%20.pdf

Brown, Adrian, Developing Practical Approaches to Active Preservation, International Journal of Digital Curation, Vol 2, No 1, June 2007

Smith, Joan A., Martin Klein and Michael L. Nelson, Repository Replication Using NNTP and SMTP, ArXiv, Computer Science, cs.DL/0606008, v2, 2 Nov 2006
Investigates "how dissemination of repository contents can be piggybacked on top of existing email and Usenet traffic. Long-term persistence of the replicated repository may be achieved thanks to current policies and procedures which ensure that email messages and news posts are retrievable for evidentiary and other legal purposes for many years after the creation date."

Caplan, Priscilla and Chuck Thomas, DAITSS: Another Preservation Option for Electronic Theses & Dissertations (pdf 4pp), 9th International Symposium on Electronic Theses and Dissertations, Quebec City, June 7 - 10, 2006

Wollschlaeger, Thomas, ETD's as pilot materials for long-term preservation efforts in kopal (pdf 8pp), 9th International Symposium on Electronic Theses and Dissertations, Quebec City, June 7 - 10, 2006

Hunter, Jane, and Sharmin Choudhury, Semi-Automated Preservation and Archival of Scientific Data using Semantic Grid Services, Semantic Infrastructure for Grid Computing Applications Workshop at the International Symposium on Cluster Computing and the Grid, CCGrid 2005, Cardiff, UK, May 2005
on PANIC (preservation webservice architecture for newmedia & interactive collections)

Koerbin, Paul, The PANDORA Digital Archiving System (PANDAS): Managing Web Archiving in Australia: A Case Study, 4th International Web Archiving Workshop, Bath, UK, 16 September 2004

van Wijngaarden, Hilde, and Erik Oltmans, Digital Preservation and Permanent Access: The UVC for Images, Proceedings of the Imaging Science & Technology Archiving Conference, San Antonio, USA, April 2004
on using the Universal Virtual Computer (UVC) for images, within the Koninklijke Bibliotheek's (KB) e-Depot, based on the IBM product DIAS (Digital Information and Archiving System)

Moore, Reagan, Chaitan Baru, Arcot Rajasekar, Bertram Ludaescher, Richard Marciano, Michael Wan, Wayne Schroeder, and Amarnath Gupta, Collection-Based Persistent Digital Archives - Part 1, D-Lib Magazine, Volume 6 Number 3, March 2000

see also
ADAPT: An Approach to Digital Archiving and Preservation Technology, 2004
main components are: Layered Archive Infrastructure, Producer - Archive Workflow Network (PAWN), Management of Preservation Processes (MPP), and Consumer - Archive Network (CAN)

van der Werf, Titia, The Deposit System for Electronic Publications: A Process Model, NEDLIB Report Series No. 6, November 2000 (pdf 62pp)

Feenstra, Bendert, Standards for the Implementation of a Deposit System for Electronic Publications, NEDLIB Report Series No. 4, September 2000 (pdf 43pp)

see also various distributed persistent storage architectures, e.g.
SRB work on data grids

Electronic journal archiving

Durrant, Sarah, Long-term Preservation: Results from a survey investigating preservation strategies amongst ALPSP publisher members (pdf 16pp), ALPSP, 2008 (announced October)
Another bland survey hewn from the same rock as the Portico/Ithaka Survey of U.S. Library Directors
Beagrie blog comment: "interesting reading and overall is a very worthwhile report" (13 October 2008)

Rusbridge, A. and Ross, S., Establishing a community-based approach to electronic journal archiving: the UK LOCKSS Pilot Programme, iPRES 2008 Fifth International Conference on Preservation of Digital Objects, London, 29-30th September 2008
also in Glasgow ePRINTS Service, 15 October 2008

Dappert, Angela, and Markus Enders, Using METS, PREMIS and MODS for Archiving eJournals, D-Lib Magazine, Vol. 14 No. 9/10, September/October 2008

Anon, Digital preservation of e-journals in 2008: Urgent Action revisited. Results from a Portico/Ithaka Survey of U.S. Library Directors, Portico, undated (announced June 2008) (pdf 10pp)
Attitude survey that might instead have looked at requirements, costs and solutions in the marketplace

Morrow, Terry, Neil Beagrie, Maggie Jones and Julia Chruszcz, A Comparative Study of e-Journal Archiving Solutions (pdf 41pp), JISC Collections, Final Report - May 2008

Dalton, Pete, and Angela Conyers, Evaluation of the JISC UK LOCKSS Pilot, JISC report, May 2008 (pdf 47pp)

Galyani Moghaddam, Golnessa, Preserve Scientific Electronic Journals: A Study of Archiving Initiatives, E-LIS, 06 April 2008, in The Electronic Library 26(1),83-96

Choudhury, Sayeed, Tim DiLauro, Alex Szalay, Ethan Vishniac, Robert J. Hanisch, Julie Steffen, Robert Milkey, Teresa Ehling, Ray Plante, Digital Data Preservation for Scholarly Publications in Astronomy, International Journal of Digital Curation, Vol. 2, No. 2, December 2007

Rusbridge, Adam, Seamus Ross, The UK LOCKSS Pilot Programme: A Perspective from the LOCKSS Technical Support Service, International Journal of Digital Curation, Vol. 2, No. 2, December 2007

Wheatley, Paul, and Rory McLeod, Preservation Plan for ejournals, v0.8, British Library Digital Preservation Team, 19/6/07
Effectively a format-focussed case study of the 'seamless flow' approach to digital preservation, involving format characterisation, preservation planning and preservation action. Concerned with e-journals, the particular formats studied are NLM DTD XML and PDF.

CLOCKSS – the communities’ archive: Early Lessons and Accomplishments, 5 May 2007
Not many 'lessons', more a statement of progress and intent from the CLOCKSS (Controlled LOCKSS) Board

Oltmans, Erik and van Wijngaarden, Hilde, The KB e-Depot digital archiving policy, E-LIS, 24 March 2007. Also in Library Hi Tech, 24(4), 2006,604-613

Hockx-Yu, Helen, Establishing a UK LOCKSS Pilot Programme. E-LIS, 06 October 2006

Kenney, Anne R., Richard Entlich, Peter B. Hirtle, Nancy Y. McGovern, and Ellie L. Buckley, E-Journal Archiving Metes and Bounds: A Survey of the Landscape (pdf 120pp), Council on Library and Information Resources, pub 138, September, 2006
see also these reviews
Smith, Kathlin, Institutional Repositories and E-Journal Archiving: What Are We Learning? Journal of Electronic Publishing, Vol. 11, No. 1, Winter 2008
Jones, Maggie, E-Journal Archiving: Review and Analysis of the CLIR Report E-Journal Archiving Metes and Bounds: A Survey of the Landscape, JISC, 16th February 2007

Fenton, Eileen, Preserving Electronic Scholarly Journals: Portico, Ariadne, Issue 47, 30-April-2006

Kenney, Anne R., Surveying the E-Journal Preservation Landscape, ARL Bimonthly Report, No. 245, April 2006
Describes an ongoing survey of archiving initiatives, with a final report expected in August. "This relatively brief article will introduce you to some digital archiving initiatives you may not have heard of." (C&I comment, p20)

Machovec, George, E-journal Archives and Preservation: An Executive Overview, The Charleston Advisor, Vol. 7, No. 4, April 2006, 51-55

Anon, Journal Archiving and Interchange DTD (v2.0), NCBI, December 30, 2004

Steenbakkers, Johan F., Treasuring the Digital Records of Science: Archiving E-Journals at the Koninklijke Bibliotheek, RLG DigiNews, Vol. 8, No. 2, April 15, 2004

Ockerbloom, John Mark, Report On A Mellon-Funded Planning Project For Archiving Scholarly Journals, 16 September 2002 (updated December 10, 2003)

Jones, Maggie, Archiving E-journals Consultancy, JISC document, final report, October 2003

Steenbakkers, Johan, Permanent Archiving of Electronic Publications: Research & Practice, International Summer School on the Digital Library 2003 Course 3: Libraries, Electronic Resources, and Electronic Publishing, August 2003

Baudoin, Patsy, and MacKenzie Smith, DEJA: A Year in Review, Report on the Planning Year Grant For the Design of a Dynamic E-journal Archive, Report to The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, 30 May 2002

Flecker, Dale, Preserving Digital Periodicals, in Building a National Strategy for Preservation: Issues in Digital Media Archiving, Council on Library and Information Resources, pub106, April 2002

Harvard University Library Mellon Project Steering Committee and Project Technical Team, Report on the Planning Year Grant For the Design of an E-journal Archive, Report to The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, 1 April 2002
includes 'trigger events'
see also
Harvard E-journal Archive SIP format

Yale University Library and Elsevier Science, YEA: The Yale Electronic Archive, One Year of Progress, Report on the Digital Preservation Planning Project, Report to the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, February 2002
includes 'trigger events'

Reich, Vicky, and David S. H. Rosenthal, LOCKSS: A Permanent Web Publishing and Access System, D-Lib Magazine, Vol. 7 No. 6, June 2001

Legal issues

Various, International Study on the Impact of Copyright Law on Digital Preservation (pdf 214pp), The Library of Congress National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program, The Joint Information Systems Committee, The Open Access to Knowledge (OAK) Law Project, The SURFfoundation, July 2008

Muir, Adrienne, Preservation, Access and Intellectual Property Rights Challenges for Libraries in the Digital Environment (pdf 11pp), Instutute for Public Policy Research, 05 June 2006

Ayre, C. and Muir, A., Right to preserve? Copyright and licensing for digital preservation project: final report, March 2004, in Loughborough University Institutional Repository, deposited 2005-08-10

Muir, Adrienne, Copyright and licensing for digital preservation, Update, June 2003

Charlesworth, Andrew, Legal issues relating to the archiving of Internet resources in the UK, EU, USA and Australia, JISC and Wellcome Trust feasibility study, 25 February 2003
Covers 'open access' projects such as Internet Archive and Library of Congress project Minerva, noting that the LoC assumed it was reasonable to download open access materials for preservation but did not have explicit legal right to do so. The study does not refer to Creative Commons (launched 2001; first licences Dec. 2002), which might be another means of authors expressing rights for download and preservation, although it is not immediately compatible with author-publisher agreements for open access publications

General digital preservation

Various, POWR The Preservation of Web Resources Handbook, Digital preservation for the UK HE/FE web management community, JISC/UKOLN/ULCC (pdf 104pp), 9 December 2008
Nicely and confidently presented

Moore, Reagan, Towards a Theory of Digital Preservation, International Journal of Digital Curation, Vol. 3, No. 1 (2008), announced August 2008

Striking breadth of thinking, converging on iRODS

Pennock, Maureen, JISC Programme Synthesis Study: Supporting Digital Preservation and Asset Management in Institutions: A Review of the 4-04 Programme on Digital Preservation and Asset Management in Institutions for the JISC Information Environment: Part II: Programme Synthesis (pdf 86pp), UKOLN, Bath, January 2008

Holdsworth, David, Preservation Strategies for Digital Libraries, instalment of DCC, Digital Curation Manual, Version 1.0, October 2007

Hoorens, Stijn, Jeff Rothenberg, Constantijn van Orange, Martijn van der Mandele and Ruth Levitt, Addressing the uncertain future of preserving the past: Towards a robust strategy for digital archiving and preservation, RAND Europe, 2007 (available November 6, 2007)
Analyses the Koninklijke Bibliotheek’s e-Depot strategy "in the context of wider developments in the archiving and publishing environment"
Comment from Caveat Lector blog, 13 November 2007: "researched and written by smart people who know this field and understand all the angles. I would happily use it in a classroom, and that’s high commendation—a lot of these report things don’t make any sense to someone who doesn’t already have the background."
Response of the Koninklijke Bibliotheek, National library of the Netherlands, reaffirms its support for the findings and recommendarions in the report

Bearman, David, Addressing selection and digital preservation as systemic problems, in Preserving the Digital Heritage: Principles and Policies, Yola de Lusenet and Vincent Wintermans (eds), Netherlands National Commission for UNESCO, and the Koninklijke Bibliotheek (National Library of the Netherlands), 2007 (announced 6 August)

McGovern, Nancy Y., A Digital Decade: Where Have We Been and Where Are We Going in Digital Preservation? RLG DigiNews, Vol. 11, No. 1, April 15, 2007
"a remarkably clear assessment of developments in the digital preservation community over the past ten years", comment by Brian Rosenblum in Current Cites, April 2007

Gladney, H.M., Digital Preservation in a National Context: Questions and Views of an Outsider, D-Lib Magazine, Vol. 13, No. 1/2, January/February 2007
Quite scathing about the approach and progress of the US-based National Digital Information Infrastructure Preservation Program (NDIIPP). Instead advocates an alternative software engineering and tools based approach: "if document representations and network protocols are standardized, then each archive can autonomously adapt itself to its own institutional environment."

Michael Peterson, Gary Zasma, Peter Mojica and Jeff Porter, 100 Year Archive Requirements Survey (pdf 66pp), Storage Networking Industry Association (SNIA), Data Management Forum, January 2007
Another scary and lengthy survey report, but beautifully presented so easy to identify the information of interest. Free registration required.

Stevenson, Jane, Jorum Preservation Watch Report, Jorum project report, 24 July 2006 (pdf 66pp)

Verheul, Ingeborg, Networking for Digital Preservation: Current Practice in 15 National Libraries, IFLA Publications, 119, 2006 (München: Saur) (pdf 271pp)

Thomaz, Katia P., Critical Factors for Digital Records Preservation, Journal of Information, Information Technology, and Organizations, Volume 1, 2006, 21-41
A study in Brazil based on a mix of case studies, grounded theory, interviews, documents analysis, focus groups and peer reviews, within four participating companies involved in technology change, identified 160 digital preservation factors. An interesting and original evaluation, but a dated literature survey and some of the selected issues cast doubt on current relevance

Rusbridge, Chris, Excuse Me … Some Digital Preservation Fallacies, Ariadne, issue 46, February 2006
Thought-provoking. States a series of propositions concerning preservation, and ends up by restating them. Does this suggest we don't have 'solutions' for digital preservation because the preservation problem isn't clearly specified?

Stevenson, Jane, Preservation Watch Report, JORUM Project report to JISC, V1.0, November 2005 (pdf 73pp)
Approaches digital preservation from a fresh perspective, and is a good, extensive report for those similarly exploring preservation anew

(Greer, Chris) Digital Data Collections: Enabling: Research and Education in the 21st Century, National Science Board May 26, 2005

Gladney, H M, Principles for Digital Preservation, ERPAePRINTS, November 11, 2004

Lavoie, Brian and Lorcan Dempsey, Thirteen Ways of Looking at ... Digital Preservation, D-Lib Magazine, Volume 10 Number 7/8, July/August 2004
Current Cites comment, July 2004

Lynch, Clifford, Preserving Digital Documents: Choices, Approaches, and Standards, Law Library Journal, 96, No. 4 (2004)
"there has been some useful work done on metadata standards for preservation, although that work is not highly advanced. Part of the problem is that a lot of the work on preservation metadata has given rise to organizational guidance, the kinds of things you should think about as you attach metadata to objects when you want to preserve them, rather than hard specifics that would be more typical in interchange format, because preservation metadata today is seldom shared across organizations."
* Since this talk was given there has been a great deal of progress in relevant areas here. I would point the interested reader at the work on METS (Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard), the PREMIS group which is dealing with provenance-related metadata, and the NISO Still Image Technical Metadata draft standard and its representation in XML called MIX.

Hodge, Gail and Evelyn Frangakis, Digital Preservation and Permanent Access to Scientific Information: The State of the Practice (pdf 92 pp) (free registration required) International Council for Scientific and Technical Information (ICSTI) and CENDI (U.S. Federal Information Managers Group), February 2004, updated April 7, 2004 (pdf version:
Section 4.4.2 to Institutional Repositories
update to Hodge, Gail and Bonnie C. Carroll, Digital Electronic Archiving: The State of the Art and Practice, ICSTI/CENDI, 26 April 1999>

Digital Preservation Management: Implementing Short-Term Strategies for Long-Term Problems, Cornell University, September 2003

Smith, Abby, Digital Preservation: An Individual Responsibility for Communal Scholarship, Educause Review, Volume 38, Number 3, May/June 2003

Smith, Abby, New-Model Scholarship: How Will It Survive? Council on Library and Information Resources, pub114, March 2003

Lord, Philip, and Alison Macdonald, e-Science Curation Report Data curation for e-Science in the UK: an audit to establish requirements for future curation and provision, JISC , 2003

Beagrie, Neil, National Digital Preservation Initiatives: An Overview of Developments in Australia, France, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom and of Related International Activity, Council on Library and Information Resources and the Library of Congress, Washington, DC, 2003

Hedstrom, M., Ross, S., et al., Invest to save: report and recommendations of the NSF-DELOS Working Group on Digital Archiving and Preservation, 2003
"Identified some key requirements" (Day slides)

Various, The State of Digital Preservation: An International Perspective, Council on Library and Information Resources, pub107, 7/02
Waters, Donald, Good Archives Make Good Scholars: Reflections on Recent Steps Toward the Archiving of Digital Information

Digital Preservation Coalition (Neil Beagrie & Maggie Jones), Preservation Management of Digital Materials; A Handbook (British Library, in print, October 2001), online edition version 1.0, May 2002, continually updated

It's About Time: Research Challenges in Digital Archiving and Long-term Preservation, Library of Congress, April 12-13, 2002 (pdf size: 15.9MB)
"If you're involved with digital library research or -- god help you -- in digital preservation itself, this report is essential reading. The rest of us can probably skip it" Roy Tennant, Current Cites, Dec 2003
"Identified some key requirements" (Day slides)

Kyong-Ho Lee, Oliver Slattery, Richang Lu, Xiao Tang, and Victor McCrary, The State of the Art and Practice in Digital Preservation, Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Volume 107, Number 1, January–February 2002 (pdf 14pp)
includes a review of projects from the period

Wiggins, Richard, Digital Preservation: Paradox & Promise, Library Journal NetConnect, Spring, 2001

Day, Michael, Preservation of electronic information: a bibliography, last updated 2000

Kahle, B., Archiving the Internet, Scientific American, March 1997
copy at:

Various, Preserving Digital Information, Report of the Task Force on Archiving of Digital Information, Commission on Preservation and Access and Research Libraries Group, May 1, 1996 (pdf 71pp)

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