Re: Questions 7, 20, 32, 35 Challenged

From: Harnad, Stevan (
Date: Wed May 21 1997 - 12:12:16 BST

> From: Cherry, Sandra <>
> Question 7 The child knows Universal grammar: I actually put down d, as
> I knew it wasnt the first 3 however what is tacitly?
> I feel that my knowledge of the English language or rather lack of it
> has let me down in this Cogsci quiz!

    (7) The child knows Universal Grammar:
    a. explicitly
    b. partially
    c. consciously
    d. theoretically
    e. ***tacitly

Well, "tacit" knowledge is mentioned in the text, but this wasn't meant
to be a vocabulary test: a-d are all wrong, so it had to be e, but
this question question will be dropped too.

> Question 20 Which of the following are deictic terms? Well I didn't
> know what deictic was. So I made a guess which I now know to be wrong.

    (20) Which of the following are deictic terms:
    a. thing
    b. there
    c. now
    d. a and b
    e. ***b and c

Deixis (which, unlike "tacit") is used a lot in the pragmatics chapters
and appears in the glossary. It refers to the kinds of words for which
you would have to "be there" to know whom/what they refer to: this,
that, here, there, etc.

"Thing" is not deictic, it's just a generic term for an object
(usually). You may need more sentences to be sure what thing means, but
you don't need to "be there," the way you need to be to find out when
"now" is and where "there" is. Think of deictic terms as terms that are
POINTING to something in the room where the sentence is spoken in order
to pick up their referents.

> Question 32 Which of the following are short term memories?
> I thought that echoic (can be rehearsed) iconic( like a picture memory)
> and digit span (when Miller proposed 7+-2 which can be extended by
> chunking) was all part of short term memory. And that episodic memory
> was part of long term, however given the question and the choices I
> went for e all of the above.

    (32) Which of the following are short-term memories:
    a. ***episodic memory
    b. echoic memory
    c. iconic memory
    d. digit span
    e. all the above

You're absolutely right, and the question is binned! (What happened was
that I had had the original version of the question in negative form:
Which is NOT..., and then Sharon, quite correctly, suggested that
negative questions are harder to understand for reasons that have
nothing to do with the content, so I made it affirmative, but
didn't notice that the logic no longer made sense! Apologies to those
whose brains I inadvertantly tied into a know over this!

> Question 35 The hippocampus is the area where...
> I thought that short term memories are consolidated into long term not
> that long term memories are consolidated. Therefore not needing any
> further consolodation - as they already are! So I put down e none of
> the above! I hope that anyone can enlighten me! I look foreward to the
> replies!

    (35) The hippocampus is the area where
    a. long-term memories are located
    b. short-term memories are rehearsed
    c. ***long-term memories are consolidated
    d. injury causes retrograde amnesia
    e. none of the above

Well again, you clearly knew the full, correct answer, which is that
short term memories are consolidated into long-term ones in the

It's really tough anticipating all the ways a question can be
misconstrued! I had been thinking of c as being like "the dairy is where
the ice cream is made" whereas you were thinking "the dairy is where
milk is made into ice cream!"

I'll drop the question on your paper, and if more email challenges this
question I'll drop it for everyone.

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