|Scroll the page. It is now peppered with links. Links added in the text take us to the references at the end from where we can link to selected abstracts. Of course, it is possible to produce links such as are displayed here quite simply without the use of a link service, but it would be quite arduous. For the sceptics, if you could explore all the papers in the archive freely, as in the project's original, full demonstrator, you might be persuaded that this is not a simple fix. As it is, when you see the pages that follow, you will see why it couldn't be fixed manually.|
Volume: 6 (next,
PSYCOLOQUY (ISSN 1055-0143) is sponsored by the American Psychological Association (APA).
II. P3 AND MEMORY
2. P3's main portion is not within the theta band. Rather, the main portion of P3 lies in sub-delta and delta. For example, P3 is virtually abolished with a high-pass setting at 1.0 Hz (Duncan-Johnson & Donchin, 1979) or of 2.0 Hz (Jodo & Kayama, 1992). The importance of the slow portion of P3, as well as the irrelevance of the faster bands, can also be recognized from the practice found in many laboratories of measuring P3's peak after severe low-pass filtering. For example, Donchin's group has often used a low-pass with -3db at 8 Hz (e.g., Fabiani & Donchin, 1995) implying a relevant attenuation of the theta band, and others have gone even further below, without any obvious loss of information (e.g., 3.5 Hz low-pass used by Pfefferbaum, Christensen, Ford & Kopell, 1986).
3. P3 is only loosely related to the hippocampus. As Klimesch (1995) correctly points out, integrity of the hippocampus is not necessary for P3 (e.g., Polich & Squire, 1993) even though there is activity within the hippocampus concurrent with, or shortly after P3, often larger than in other areas (Smith, Halgren, Sokolik, Baudena, Musolino, Liegois-Chauvel & Chauvel, 1990). Yet, what is necessary for P3 is integrity of the temporo-parietal junction (Knight, Scabini, Woods & Clayworth, 1989; Yamaguchi & Knight, 1991; Verleger, Heide, Butt & Koempf 1994; see also Molnar, 1994).
Bentin, S. & Peled, B. (1990). The contribution of task-related factors to ERP repetition effects at short and long lags. Memory & Cognition, 18, 359-366.
Duncan-Johnson, C.C. & Donchin, E. (1979). The time constant in P300 recording. Psychophysiology, 16, 53-55.
Fabiani, M. & Donchin, E. (1995). Encoding processes and memory organization: A model of the Von Restorff effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 21, 224- 240.
Friedman, D., Hamberger, M., Stern, Y. & Marder, K. (1992). Event- related potentials (ERPs) during repetition priming in Alzheimer's patients and young and older controls. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 14, 448-462.
Jodo, E. & Kayama, Y. (1992). Relation of a negative ERP component to response inhibition in a go/no-go task. Electroencephalography and clinical Neurophysiology, 82, 477-482.
Johnson, R., Jr. (1986). A triarchic model of P300 amplitude. Psychophysiology, 23, 367-384.
Karis, D., Fabiani, M. & Donchin, E. (1984). "P300" and memory: Individual differences in the von Restorff effect. Cognitive Psychology, 16, 177-216.
Klimesch, W. (1995). Memory Processes Described as Brain Oscillations in the EEG-Alpha and Theta Bands. PSYCOLOQUY 95(6) memory.brain.1.klimesch.
Knight, R.T., Scabini, D., Woods, D.L. & Clayworth, C.C. (1989). Contributions of temporal-parietal junction to the human auditory P3. Brain Research, 502, 109-116.
Kutas, M. & Hillyard, S.A. (1980). Reading senseless sentences: Brain potentials reflect semantic incongruity. Science, 207, 203-205.
Molnar, M. (1994). On the origin of the P3 event-related potential component. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 17, 129-144.
Naatanen, R. (1990). The role of attention in auditory information processing as revealed by event-related potentials and other brain measures of cognitive function. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 13, 201-288.
Paller, K.A. (1990). Recall and stem-completion priming have different electrophysiological correlates and are modified differentially by directed forgetting. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 16, 1021-1032.
Paller, K.A., Kutas, M. & Mayes, A.R. (1987). Neural correlates of encoding in an incidental learning paradigm. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 67, 360-371.
Pfefferbaum, A., Christensen, C., Ford, J.M. & Kopell, B.S. (1986). Apparent response incompatibility effects on P3 latency depend on the task. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 64, 424-437.
Polich, J. & Squire, L.E. (1993). P300 from amnesic patients with bilateral hippocampal lesions. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 86, 408-417.
Roesler, F., Heil, M. & Hennighausen, E. (1995). Distinct cortical activation patterns during long-term memory retrieval of verbal, spatial, and color information. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 7, 51-65.
Rugg, M.D. & Nagy, M.E. (1989). Event-related potentials and recognition memory for words. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 72, 395-406.
Rugg, M.D., Cox, C.J.C., Doyle, M.C. & Wells, T. (1995). Event-related potentials and the recollection of low and high frequency words. Neuropsychologia, 33, 471-484.
Rugg, M.D., Pearl, S., Walker, P., Roberts, R.C. & Holdstock, J.S. (1994).Word repetition effects on event-related potentials in healthy young and old subjects, and in patients with Alzheimer-type dementia. Neuropsychologia, 32, 381-398.
Rugg, M.D., Roberts, R.C., Potter, D.D., Pickles, C.D. & Nagy, M.E. (1991). Event-related potentials related to recognition memory. Effects of unilateral temporal lobectomy and temporal lobe epilepsy. Brain, 114, 2313-2332.
Sanquist, T.F., Rohrbaugh, J.W., Syndulko, K. & Lindsley, D.B. (1980). Electrocortical signs of levels of processing: Perceptual analysis and recognition memory. Psychophysiology, 17, 568-576.
Smith, M.E. (1993). Neurophysiological manifestations of recollective experience during recognition memory judgments. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 5, 1-13.
Smith, M.E. & Guster, K. (1993). Decomposition of recognition memory event-related potentials yields target, repetition, and retrieval effects. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 86, 335-343.
Smith, M.E. & Halgren, E. (1989). Dissociation of recognition memory components following temporal lobe lesions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 15, 50-60.
Smith, M.E., Halgren, E., Sokolik, M., Baudena, P., Musolino, A., Liegois-Chauvel, C. & Chauvel, P. (1990). The intracranial topography of the P3 event-related potential elicited during auditory oddball. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 76, 235-248.
Sommer, W., Heinz, A., Leuthold, H., Matt, J. & Schweinberger, S.R. (1995).Metamemory, distinctiveness, and event-related potentials in recognition memory for faces. Memory & Cognition, 23, 1-11.
Sommer, W., Schweinberger, S.R. & Matt, J. (1991). Human brain potential correlates of face encoding into memory. Electro- encephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 79, 457-463.
Uhl, F., Franzen, P., Serles, W., Lang, W., Lindinger, G. & Deecke, L. (1990). Anterior frontal cortex and the effect of proactive interference in paired associate learning. A DC-potential study. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 2, 373-382.
Verleger, R., Heide, W., Butt, C. & Koempf, D. (1994). Reduction of P3b in patients with temporo-parietal lesions. Cognitive Brain Research, 2, 103-116.
Yamaguchi, S. & Knight, R.T. (1991). Anterior and posterior association cortex contributions to the somatosensory P300. The Journal of Neuroscience, 11, 2039-2054.