The Open Citation Project - Reference Linking and Citation Analysis for Open Archives
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 This page last updated Tuesday, 08-Mar-2005 21:27:52 GMT

Papers and presentations

The effect of open access and downloads ('hits') on citation impact: a bibliography of studies
OpCit: a selective prior bibliography
Related papers
Forthcoming presentations Papers produced by the project
Stevan Harnad, principal investigator for the OpCit project, has given a series of talks around the world on the theme "For Whom the Gate Tolls? Freeing the Scholarly and Scientific Research Literature Online Through Author/Institution Self-Archiving". Read the paper based on the talks.

Want to avoid the rhetoric? Try this Harnad talk: the vision, the projects, the achievements 1978-2000.

Next Harnad talk ...
... Full list of Harnad talks 2000-2005

Virtual presentation
The Research Impact Cycle, explains open access through the self-archiving of institutional (peer-reviewed) research output. These ppt slides can be freely used or adapted by users in other talks.

Past OpCit presentations


February 28-March 1 3rd international conference on implementing the Berlin Declaration on Open Access, Southampton, UK (collected presentations)
Follow-up meeting on the implementation of the recommendations in the Berlin Declaration, first signed in October 2003.

January 25-26 Open Access Institutional Repositories: Leadership, Direction and Launch (collected presentations)
Two workshops hosted at the University of Southampton, exploring practical guidelines for implementing (Eprints-based) institutional repositories (day 1), and future directions and policies (day 2). Report.

June 23-26 ICCC 8th International Conference on Electronic Publishing, Brasília, DF, Brazil.
Contributions included

  • workshop: The contribution of open archives initiatives and institutional repositories to the advancement of knowledge
  • Round Table on Digital Technologies and Media for Publishing Purposes
  • keynote paper: Linking knowledge domains: promises of semantic web

May 13-15 Open Access for Authors, Researchers and their Institutions (ppt slides, 3.4MB)
Presented at CRIS 2004, 7th international conference on Current Research Information Systems, Antwerp, Belgium.

May 2-4 and May 6-8 Workshops on Open Access, Chennai, India. Press release from the workshops; press coverage from The Hindu Business Line.

April 26-28 Citation Analysis for the Free, Online Literature (ppt slides)
Presented at the Second Nordic Conference on Scholarly Communication - Towards a New Publishing Environment, Lund, Sweden.

April 22 Eprints - what's in it for the Researcher? (ppt slides) and "What Technology is Involved?" (see ePrints UK Bath Workshop)
Both presentations at the ePrints UK Manchester Workshop, Manchester, UK.

February 19 National Policies on Open Access (OA) Provision for University Research Output: an International meeting
Invited presentations from this important Southampton-hosted international seminar.

February 6 What Technology is Involved? (ppt slides)
Presented at ePrints UK Bath Workshop, Bath, UK.


Stevan Harnad addresses key national policy-making forums on the need to support open access self-archiving
November 11 Open Online Access to Research, seminar, Norwegian Council of Higher Education, National Committee of University and Research Libraries, Oslo.
October 20-22 Why to implement the Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities (supplemented html slides)
Presented at Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities, organized by the Max Planck Society in association with European Cultural Heritage Online, Berlin.

October 8-10 Self Archiving, OAI & Open Archives, Institutional Archives & An Overview of GNU EPrints 2 (ppt) 74-slide presentation covering all that it promises!
Presented at III Workshop REBIUN sobre proyectos digitales, "La biblioteca digital y la nueva comunicación científica", Barcelona.

September 17-19 Citebase Search: Autonomous Citation Database for e-print Archives" (pdf slides, for the full-text paper see column right)
Presented at sinn03 conference on Worldwide Coherent Workforce, Satisfied Users - New Services For Scientific Information, Oldenburg, Germany.

August 17-22 Digitometric Services for Open Archives Environments (ppt slides, for the full-text paper see column right)
Presented at 7th European Conference on Digital Libraries (ECDL '03), Trondheim.

July 23 Building on the Shoulders of Giants: the Scholarly Web (ppt slides). How Citebase search is enabled by open access and OAI.
Presented at Research seminar, Institute for Learning and Research Technology (ILRT), University of Bristol.

May 14 Lessons from the Open Citation Project (ppt slides, for the full-text paper based on this talk look column right for The Impact of OAI-based Search on Access to Research Journal Papers)
Presented at The Open Archives Initiative: application and exploitation, one-day UK Serials Group seminar, London.


November 6-8 Citation-Impact Ranking Search Service over Eprint Archives (ppt slides)
Presented at 11th Pan Hellenic Conference of Academic Libraries, "Academic Libraries of Open and Continuous Access", Larissa, Greece.

October 17-19 Overview of the System (slides as pdf or ppt, or watch the video)
Presented at 2nd Workshop on the Open Archives Initiative (OAI): "Gaining independence with e-prints archives and OAI", CERN, Geneva.

September 13 The Pressures Towards Open Access: the Scholars’ View (ppt slides). "Open Access is natural for scholars".
Presented at the ALPSP/OSI round table meeting, Open Access Journals - will they fly? London.

July 22 Hypertext, Digital Libraries and Us: Changes in Scholarly Communication (html slides). OpCit within the broad context of hypertext and digital library research, past and future.
Presented at Nottingham.

June 24-25 From Eprint Archives to Open Archives and OAI: the Open Citation Project (ppt slides, for the full-text paper based on this talk look column right for Open Citation Linking: the Way Forward). Almost the last OpCit talk, a round up of the project's work and pointers to future directions.
Presented at JISC/NSF Digital Libraries Initiative (DLI) All Projects Meeting, Edinburgh.

May 29 OAI Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (ppt slides), an introduction to OAI and its protocol for metadata harvesting v2.0.
Presented at Applications of Metadata, a one-day conference organised by the BCS Electronic Publishing Specialist Group, London.

May 13-14 Revealing a New Dynamic: Interaction in an Open Access Archive (ppt slides), shows that a new ‘dynamic’, the speed of interaction between users, becomes evident when access to full resources is free, open and unrestricted.
Presented at the First Workshop of the Open Archives Forum, Pisa.

April 12 The Emerging infrastructure of Scholarly Communication (ppt slides), a slightly modified and shortened version of the talk given at Nottingham (see below), this time aimed at publishers rather than users.
Presented at We can't go on like this: the future of journals, ALPSP International Learned Journals Seminar, London.

March 22 The Emerging Framework for Scholarly Communication (ppt slides) explores the growing importance of interfaces and services on access to scholarly works, highligting the role of the project in providing eprints and citation-ranked search services.
Presented at The Future of Journal Publishing, Nottingham University (see preview in University Newsletter, No. 236, March 11, 2002, p6).

March 4 ... and the Bigger Picture (ppt slides) also available as (Powerpoint) html
Assuring access, impact and quality for self-archived papers. Presented at the CURL ePrints workshop, Glasgow.

January 24-25 A brief overview of the Open Archives Initiative and OpenURL (ppt slides) also available as (Powerpoint) html
OAI and OpenURL in less than 15 mins! Presented at the JISC All-Projects Synthesis Meeting, Manchester.


July 13 OpCit tech seminar: Interoperable data for scholarly communication
Invited presentations from ten partners and colleagues on a common theme at this OpCit-hosted seminar.

May 24-25 Enhancing the Dynamics of Large-Scale E-print Archives (html slides)
Presented at JISC/DNER synthesis meeting for International Digital Libraries Research projects, Bath, UK.

April 26 Citations and Linking in Large-Scale E-print Archives (html slides)
Presented at What's e-publishing ever going to do for us? Animal Health Information Specialists Annual Conference 2001, London.

March 22-24 Distributed Eprints Archives and Scientometrics (slides collected in an 870k(!) pdf document )
Peer Review in the On-line Era (html slides converted from Powerpoint)
Both presented at the Workshop on The Open Archives initiative (OAI) and Peer Review journals in Europe, Geneva.

February 26 You Can Get There From Here! (framed html slides converted from Powerpoint)
Presented at the OAi open meeting held to mark the European public release of the specifications of the OAi interoperability architecture, Berlin.

From H. G. Wells' World Brain via Harnad's post-Gutenberg subversive proposal to eprint archives and measurments of author impact in a large archive.


October 30 Generalizing the Self-Archiving Principle Across Disciplines Via Interoperable Distributed Eprint Archiving: What France Can Do Now? (html slides converted from Powerpoint)
Presented at the Coordination meeting for xxx (LANL arXiv) mirrors, Lyon, France.

Using data from the Los Alamos physics archives the talk argues for distributed eprint archives based on the Open Archives initiative, with examples of new OAi services.

June 12-13 Extending Reference Linking for Open Archives (html slides)
Presented at the DLI 2 All-Projects Meeting, Stratford-upon-Avon, UK.

Some overlap with the Digital Libraries talk (below), but introducing an API for reference linking.

June 2-7 Developing Services for Open Eprint Archives (html slides for the talk are linked here; for the full-text paper see column right)
Presented at the 5th ACM Conference on Digital Libraries, San Antonio, Texas.


December Current Projects in Reference Linking (html slides converted from Powerpoint)
Internal presentation, Cornell University

October The Open Citation Project (html slides)
Digital Libraries Initiative All-Projects Meeting, Cornell University


All new papers produced by the project will be presented or linked from this page. Typically we will also archive copies of papers with an appropriate institutional eprint archive, e.g. for Southampton-produced papers on the ECS Publications Database. This site will aim to point to the latest version of a paper.

Latest ...

The effect of open access and downloads ('hits') on citation impact: a bibliography of studies, author eprint, September 15, 2004
Focused bibliography on the relationship between impact and access, highlighting papers showing that open access increases impact.

The Access/Impact Problem and the Green and Gold Roads to Open Access (author eprint version September 15, 2004)
Serials Review, Vol. 30, No. 4, 310-314 (journal version announced 12 December 2004; free access to published version during 2005)
Extended version of the Nature, Web Focus paper from May 2004: a practical solution to the access problem.

Citation Analysis in the Open Access World
Interactive Media International, author eprint, September 2004
On open access provision and impact assessment as a powerful new supplement to the traditional research publication system.

In a Paperless World a New Role for Academic Libraries: Providing Open Access
EuroScience Open Forum, Stockholm, August 25-28, 2004, pp.22-25
Perspective on institutional OA archives for librarians.

Comparing the Impact of Open Access (OA) vs. Non-OA Articles in the Same Journals
D-Lib Magazine, Vol. 10, No. 6, June 2004
Reveals dramatic citation advantages for open access.

The Green and the Gold Roads to Open Access
Nature, Web Focus: access to the literature, 17 May 2004
A practical solution to the access problem.

Maximizing University Research Impact Through Self-Archiving, International Journal on Science Communication, No. 7, December 2003. Longer version
Makes the important connection between improved research impact and providing open access by self-archiving; explains what universities, university libraries, research funding agencies, journal publishers and service providers should do to facilitate improved impact.

The Impact of OAI-based Search on Access to Research Journal Papers
Serials, Vol. 16, No. 3, November 2003, 255-260
How the Citebase correlation generator confirms that higher usage of free papers leads directly to higher citations and thus greater research impact, and why institutional and national policies mandating free access by self-archiving are beneficial to researchers, their institutions and funders.

Citebase Search: Autonomous Citation Database for e-print Archives
sinn03 conference on Worldwide Coherent Workforce, Satisfied Users - New Services For Scientific Information, Oldenburg, Germany, September 2003
The first paper solely about Citebase by its developer, with insights looking back and forward.

Self-Archive Unto Others as Ye Would Have Them Self-Archive Unto You
Jekyll.comm, International Journal on Science Communication, No. 6, September, 2003
Advocates self-archiving in institutional eprint archives while still publishing in peer reviewed journals.
Shorter version appeared in University Affairs, December 2003: "A clear and succinct statement of the argument for self-archiving"

Technical Report Evaluating Citebase, an Open Access Web-based Citation-Ranked Search and Impact Discovery Service
School of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton, ECSTR-IAM03-005 (ISBN: 0854 32798 3), July 2003
Reports the first detailed investigation of the impact of an open access Web citation indexing service with users, based on an evaluation by nearly 200 users from different backgrounds.

Eprint Digitometric Services for Open Archives Environments
ECS Eprints archive, Southampton University, this version deposited on 28 May 2003. Also in Proceedings ECDL 2003, Trondheim, Norway, August 2003
Describes digitometric services such as Citebase and Celestial that build on data harvested using OAI to provide advanced visualisation and hypertext navigation for the research community.

Metalist of Open Access E-Print Archives: The Genesis of Institutional Archives and Independent Services
ARL Bimonthly Report, No. 227, April 2003
Annotated original version of the metalist; the core updated version is maintained on this site. Not a list of individual open access archives, but instead lists and comments on other lists of individual archives, giving a broad overview of the structure, size and progress of full-text open access e-print archives to assist further quantitative research on the open access e-print phenomenon.

Mandated online RAE CVs linked to university eprint archives: Enhancing UK research impact and assessment
Ariadne, issue 35, April 30, 2003
New scientometric analysis of online, open access papers, demonstrated by the OpCit project, would produce more sensitive and more predictive measures of research impact, for far less cost and effort, if used for research assessment exercises such as that in the UK. First, research agencies must mandate open access to all papers to be assessed.

Back to the Oral Tradition Through Skywriting at the Speed of Thought
The Future of Web Publishing: Hyper-Reading, Cybertexts and Meta-Publishing, Centre Jacques Cartier virtual conference, January 2003
Expands some of the ideas in Stevan Harnad's 1991 PostGutenberg Galaxy paper: "Our brains are biologically adapted to the tempo of oral interaction in real time ... soon skywriting will again catch up with the speed of thought".

Electronic Preprints and Postprints
Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science, Marcel Dekker, Inc., 2003
Reflects on the special nature of peer-reviewed papers, on pre-reviewed versions (preprints), notably the preprint culture in physics, and post-reviewed versions (postprints, publications), and why this literature is amenable to open access by self-archiving.

A Scalable Architecture for Harvest-Based Digital Libraries - The ODU/Southampton Experiments
D-Lib Magazine, Vol. 8, No. 11, November 2002
Eprint arXiv Computer Science cs.DL/0205071, May 2002
Describes preliminary work in a collaboration between the OpCit project and Old Dominion University in the USA to exploit the OAI Protocol for Metadata Harvesting.

Open Citation Linking: the Way Forward
D-Lib Magazine, Vol. 8, No. 10, October 2002
The OpCit story, intertwined with the concurrent emergence of the OAI and the growth of open-access archives. Based on the presentation given at the JISC/NSF Digital Libraries Initiative (DLI) All Projects Meeting, Edinburgh, in June 2002 (see column left).

Eprint GNU EPrints 2 Overview
Publications database, Dept. of Electronics and Computer Science, Southampton University, October 2002, in Proceedings 11th Panhellenic Academic Libraries Conference
Overview of GNU EPrints 2, free software which creates a Web-based archive and database of scholarly output.

Evidence of Hypertext in the Scholarly Archive (pdf)
Proceedings of HT'02, the 13th ACM Conference on Hypertext, University of Maryland, June 2002
Brief (2 pp) paper presenting evidence to support the assertion that online scientific communication is evolving a network of texts commenting on, citing, classifying, abstracting, listing and revising other texts, rather than simply a classified collection of texts.

Scraping the ACM Digital Library (pdf)
SIGIR Forum, Vol. 35 No. 2, Fall 2001
Assesses the accuracy of tools used to 'scrape', in this case to extract reference data, from a large collection of pdf documents.

Skyreading and Skywriting for Researchers: A Post-Gutenberg Anomaly and How to Resolve it
Presented as part of the text-e virtual symposium. Read the debate on the paper (14 -30 November 2001)
A shorter version of "For Whom the Gate Tolls?", the paper accompanying Stevan Harnad's world tour (see top of column left).

Enhancing OAI Metadata for Eprint Services: two proposals
Experimental OAI-based Digital Library Systems Workshop held in conjunction with the 5th European Conference on Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries (ECDL), Darmstadt, September 8, 2001
Short paper on how to make richer metadata available from OAi-compliant data providers and service providers.

An Architecture for Automatic Reference Linking (Postscript)
Cornell University Technical Report, TR2001-1842, 2001, presented at the 5th European Conference on Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries (ECDL), Darmstadt, September 2001
Considers the accuracy of links produced in a reference linking experiment involving an online journal. A technical discussion aimed at Web developers.

How and Why To Free All Refereed Research From Access- and Impact-Barriers Online, Now
High Energy Physics Libraries Webzine, Issue 4, June 2001
Polemic urging scientists to free their refereed research papers by self-archiving them online in their own institution's Eprint archives, but with real data showing the impact benefits of this approach.

Automatic Extraction of Reference Linking Information from Online Documents (pdf)
Cornell University Technical Report, TR 2000-1821, November 2000
Presents solutions to the parsing issues involved in extracting metadata automatically from scholarly papers.

An Architecture for Reference Linking (Postscript)
Cornell University Technical Report, TR 2000-1820, October 2000

Describes an architecture in which reference information is extracted from archives by surrogate objects and then presented to client applications by means of an application programming interface (API).

Integrating, navigating and analyzing eprint archives through Open Citation Linking (the OpCit Project) (pdf)
Current Science Online, Vol. 79 No. 5, 10th September, 2000 (special issue in honour of Eugene Garfield)
How a citation-linked online digital corpus allows powerful new forms of online informetric analysis that go far beyond static citation analysis, yielding an embryology of learned inquiry. Also available in html.

Developing services for open eprint archives: globalisation, integration and the impact of links
5th ACM Conference on Digital Libraries, San Antonio, Texas, June 2000.
Describes the project in the context of the Open Archives initiative and other emerging digital library information environments in which different linking applications might converge. With some early project results.

A usage based analysis of CoRR A commentary on: "CoRR: a Computing Research Repository" by Joseph Y. Halpern
ACM Journal of Computer Documentation, Vol. 24, No. 2, May 2000, 54-59.
An invited article that compares growth rates for the Computing Research Repository (CoRR) eprint archive with early LANL physics archives, and asks why authors are not using this service in much larger numbers.


Stevan Harnad Fast-Forward on the Green Road to Open Access: The Case Against Mixing Up Green and Gold
Ariadne, No. 42, 30 January 2005 (shorter version); full annotated version, December 27, 2004

A critique of: The "Green" and "Gold" Roads to Open Access: The Case for Mixing and Matching, by Jean-Claude Guédon

Stevan Harnad interviewed on open access, in video (Windows Media video, 26 mins)
Internet Librarian International 2004, London, October 10-12, 2004

Stevan Harnad The 1994 'Subversive Proposal for Electronic Publishing' at 10
American Scientist email list (and circulated on many other lists), June 27, 2004

Stevan Harnad Knowledge Freely Given Should be Freely Available
Montreal Gazette, January 5, 2004

Stevan Harnad Enhance UK research impact and assessment by making the RAE webmetric: "Why I believe that all UK research output should be online"
Times Higher Education Supplement, June 6, 2003

Stevan Harnad Research Access, Impact and Assessment: "Why I think research access, impact and assessment are linked" (extended version)
Times Higher Education Supplement, Vol. 1487, 18 May 2001, p. 16

Stevan Harnad The Self-Archiving Initiative (Nature Web Debates version, 26 April)
Nature, Vol. 410, 1024-1025, 2001

OpCit: a selective prior bibliography
Related papers

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